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Monomer single part monomers are joined to form a polymer multimer composed of many similar parts multinucleate having many nuclei within a single cell membrane mutagen any substance or agent capable of causing a change in the structure of DNA mutagenesis creation of mutations mutation change in DNA sequence nanometer 10-9(exp) meters one billionth of a meter necrosis cell death from injury or disease nematode worm of the Nematoda phylum, many of which are parasitic neonatal newborn neoplasms...

Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most common disorder of amino acid metabolism, and it is a paradigm for effective newborn screening. Phenylalanine is an essential amino acid (meaning that it cannot be synthesized but must be taken in through the diet). The first step to its breakdown is the phenylalanine hydroxylase reaction, which converts phenylalanine to another amino acid, tyrosine. A genetic defect in the phenylalanine hydroxylase enzyme is the basis for classical PKU....

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Phenylketonuria PKU Malignant PKU Type 1 tyrosinemia phenylalanine hydroxylase biopterin cofactor fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase cystathionine-g-synthase or methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase or various deficiencies in formation of the methyl-cobalamin form of vitamin B12 branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase complex Disorders of Organic Acid Metabolism Propionic Acidemia propionyl-CoA carboxylase irritation to the corneas of the eyes progressive arthritis and bone disease dark urine...