Rationale For Targeted Drug Delivery

Most drugs, after administration in a conventional immediate- or controlled-release dosage form, freely distribute throughout the body, typically leading to uptake by cells, tissues, or organs other than where their pharmacological receptors are located. Figure 1 illustrates the distribution, metabolism, and elimination pathways of drugs following administration by different routes. The lack of target specificity for the most part can be attributed to the many barriers that the body presents to...

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Figure 1 Limitation of activity by chronic conditions United States, 1997. Source From Ref. 150. Table 8 Physical Impairments and Conditions with Impact on Drug Delivery Macula degeneration Glaucoma Amblyacousia Dehydration Mucosa degeneration Reduced saliva production Alzheimer's disease Obliviousness Bottle blister opening Tablet splitting Subcutaneous injections Inhalers Eye drops Sublingual sprays Subcutaneous injections Measuring liquids Read instructions Clicking noise (e.g., inhalers,...

Drug Carrier Delivery Systems

Drug carrier delivery systems employ biologically inert macromolecules to direct a drug to its target site in the body. These are divided into two types particulate and soluble macromolecular. Depending on the carrier system, the drug can be either molecularly entrapped within the carrier matrix or covalently linked to the carrier molecules. The major advantage of drug carrier delivery systems is that the distribution of drugs in the body depends on the physicochemical properties of the...

Drug Delivery Systems and Compliance Issues

The changes experienced in aging may affect a patient's ability to use some of the drug delivery systems existing today. It should be kept in mind, however, that within the context of this chapter, a drug delivery system is not merely a novel dosage form It is the dosage form with its container, labeling, and any other information supplied with the medication to the user. Solid oral dosage forms, particularly tablets, are the preferred type of formulation worldwide. Not only are these products...