Cc Receptors 61 CCRl

CCRl was the first isolated CC chemokine receptor. Originally identified as the RANTES (CCL5) MIP-1 a (CCL3) receptor (62, 63), it was subsequently shown that MCP-3 (CCL7) also binds with high affinity to CCRl (64). CCRl is expressed on various leukocyte cell types, including monocytes, T-cells, and eosinophils (see Table 4.1). In mouse, but not human, CCRl is also expressed on neutrophils (65). CCRl mRNA has also been detected in human dendritic cells (66). A significant increase in CCRl...

IFNy Knockout and Transgenic Mice

The in vivo role of IFNy has been elucidated in mice using null mutations for IFNy or the INFy receptors (IFNGl and IFNG2). All these mice present a common characteristic, in that their ability to resist infection is greatly impaired. In these mice a significant reduction in MHC class II molecules on macrophages was observed (584-587). INFy or INFy receptor knockout mice have shown that, depending.on the animal models, this cytokine can act as either an immunosuppressant or an...

IL1 Modulators Clinical Data

Eral approaches have been used to antagonize cytokine activity, including antibodies against the cytokine or the cytokine receptor, mutant forms of the cytokine that bind to the receptor yet do not signal, and recombinant soluble receptors. The extracellular domain of the IL-has been used as a decoy receptor in several animal models. For example, in a rat antigen-induced arthritis model, administration of soluble IL-1RI reduced joint swelling and tissue destruction (368). It also increases...

Ccr5

This receptor, originally cloned as ChemR13, is part of the family of CC chemokine receptors binding RANTES (CCL5), MlP-la (CCL3), andMIP-1 3 (CCL4) (176-178).CCR5 is expressed on monocytes and some CD4+ T-lymphocyte subsets and its activation leads to chemotaxis of these cells (7). CCR5 and CXCR4 represent the most important coreceptors for the HN-1 virus (179). CCR5 is involved in a sequential process, in which the viral gpl20 interacts first with CD4, and then associates with the chemokine...

Cxcr3

CXCR3 is a receptor for three CXC chemo-kines, IP-10 (CXCL10), MIG (CXCL9), and I-TAC (CXCL11) (seeTable 4.1). This receptor is expressed preferentially on T-cells and it is upregulated upon activation of these cells. The restricted expression of this receptor suggests that its ligands are involved in the regulation of lymphocyte recruitment observed in autoimmune inflammatory lesions. IP-10 was identified as a gene product induced by interferon-y and expressed in delay-type hypersensitivity...