Collageninduced Arthritis CIA

Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease targeting peripheral joints. It causes progressive cartilage destruction and bone erosion around joints (Palmer, 1995). CIA is an experimental mouse model used for the study of human RA and is induced in genetically predisposed mice by immunization with bovine collagen II (bCII) emulsified in CFA as mentioned before. CD4+ T cells play a central role in disease induction in arthritis (Ranges et al., 1985). Both antigen specific...

AntiCD137 Induced Suppression of Autoantibodies

Self-reactive T cells escape from thymic deletion and become part of the normal T cell repertoire. In normal individuals these potentially autoreactive T cells are held in check by regulatory T cells and remain quiescent (Paust and Cantor, 2005). In individuals suffering from autoimmune disease these T cells escape the regulatory process, become activated and drive inflammatory processes, support autoantibody production and participate in tissue destruction. In diseases such as systemic lupus...

Soluble CD137 and Autoimmune Diseases

CD137 has been detected in both membrane-bound mCD137 and soluble forms sCD137 . Expression level of soluble forms of CD137 does not always correlate with that of mCD137, since they are generated by alternative splicing Setareh et al., 1995 instead of a proteolytic product of mCD137. Two splice variants of sCD137 has been identified Michel et al., 1998 . Expression of both membrane-bound and soluble isoforms is activation-dependent Schwarz et al., 1996 , while the production of sCD137 seems to...

Dendritic Cells

Dendritic cells DCs are among the most potent antigen-presenting cells for the priming of T cell responses, thus contributing to adaptive immunity. In addition, DCs also participate in innate immunity. First, DCs express abundant molecules which are responsible for the activation of NK cells Degli-Esposti and Smyth, 2005 . Second, DCs can release an array of cytokines, upon activation, which are important in the regulation of immune responses, including innate immunity Steinman et al., 2005 ....

CD137 Signal Transduction

Cd137 Signal

T lymphocytes have critical roles in clearing cells expressing foreign antigens. The proliferation of T cells and their differentiation into effector and memory cells confers T cell-mediated adaptive immunity Abbas et al., 1997 . To undertake these antigen-specific functions, T cells require two signals ligation of the T cell receptor TCR by the MHC peptide complex on the antigen presenting cell APC , and cross-linking of co-stimulatory receptors on the T cell with corresponding ligands on the...

CD137CD137L in Health and Disease

Cd137 Cd137l

The importance of CD137-CD137L interactions has been underscored in several experimental systems Vinay and Kwon, 1998 . Expression of CD137 CD137L has been reported in various clinical disorders. Yamada-Okabe et al. 2003 demonstrated that thyroid hormone induced CD137 expression along with caspases. Also, expression of CD137 was detected in the inflammatory tissue in Crohn's disease Maerten et al., 2004 . Interestingly, soluble forms of CD137 and CD137L were found in serum samples collected...