Cell-type and species-specific mechanisms regulate transcription of MMP-1. This regulation depends not only on the array of cis-acting sequences and their juxtaposition in the promoters of MMP-1 from different species, but also on the assortment of transcription factors found in these species and cell types. This concept is becoming increasingly apparent as MMP-1 gene expression is studied in a variety of cell types. The previous contributions made by investigators studying the crucial role of the proximal promoter with its adjacent AP-1 and PEA3 sites have been essential in developing our understanding of how this gene is regulated. The efforts in the future will be focused on determining how this gene, with such a critical role in extracellular matrix metabolism, is carefully regulated in different cell types under different physiological and pathological conditions.
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