Anxiety and pain

The fears or anxieties may be focused on one aspect of pain, such as surgery. The focus may be on becoming unconscious waking up during the operation the actual cutting of the skin (fear of 'the knife') the outcome of the operation in terms of providing relief from the problem causing the surgery (will it work ) the post-operative pain (how much will it hurt ) scarring from the surgery. There may be fears of mutilation as with surgery to the breast or with the creation of ostomies. The pattern...