References

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Assessing pain in rheumatoid arthritis

Pain is almost universal in RA and is usually bilateral, symmetric and involves multiple joint sites. Several techniques have been used to measure pain in RA, including numerical rating scales, verbal rating scales, visual analog scales (VAS), questionnaires and behavioral observation methods. The Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales (AIMS) pain questions are valid and sensitive to change 8 . A simple 100 mm horizontal VAS with anchors of no pain at 0 mm and worst possible pain at 100 mm is...

Future research to improve management of pain in osteoarthritis

Ideally we need new drugs that are more effective in controlling pain in osteo-arthritis. The problem with this goal is that very few such treatments have been introduced over the last 25 years, with the exception of new NSAIDs, including the COXIBs. There have been some improvements in how conventional drugs are delivered, particularly focusing on transdermal routes of administration which reduce adverse events. However, given the size of the problem, these advances have been disappointingly...

List of abbreviations

ACC anterior cingulate cortex American COXIBs ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme CPDN ACEI angiotensin-converting enzyme CPSP ACR American College of Rheumatology CRP ADR adverse drug reaction CRPS AIMS Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale CVA AL-TENS acupuncture-like TENS CVD ANS autonomic nervous system CWP APF antiproliferative factor D ATP adenosine triphosphate DAS BOCF baseline observations carried forward DBS BPS IC bladder pain syndrome interstitial DH BT behavior therapy DMARDs CABG...

Vrn Infectious Disease

Krieger JN, Ross SO, Riley DE, et al. Chronic prostatitis epidemiology and role of infection. Urology 2002 60 6, suppl.A 8-13. 2. Roberts RO, Lieber MM, Rhodes, T, et al. Prevalence of a physician-assigned diagnosis of prostatitis the Olmsted County study of urinary symptoms and health status among men. Urology 1998 51 4 578-584. 3. Stamley TA. Pathogenesis and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1980 342-429. 4. McNaughton Collins M, Stafford RS, O'Leary MP,...