Spinal cord stimulation

Spinal cord stimulation was based on the gate control theory of pain, and is now linked to many mechanisms. It is thought to activate spinal inhibitory circuits, mainly those concerned with g-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic

122 123

mechanisms, [V], and may have a suppressive action on dorsal horn neuronal hyperexcitability.124 Before permanent implantation of a stimulation device, a trial period with temporary external stimulation is strongly recommended. Spinal cord stimulation has been shown to have long-term benefit in various conditions associated with neuropathic pain, including diabetic painful neuropathy, complex regional pain syndromes, and failed back syndrome.125[III], 126[III], 127[III], 128[III], 129[III], 130 [III], 131 Postherpetic pain and intercostal neuralgia seem to respond less favorably over the long term,126[III] as do pain due to cauda equina injury and phantom limb pain. [III] Strict criteria need to be applied to the * 16. selection of a patient, and all therapeutic modalities should be exhausted before the decision to implant a 17.

stimulator is made.


* 1. Attal N, Bouhassira D. Mechanisms of pain in peripheral neuropathy. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica. 19.

Supplementum. 1999; 173: 12-24; discussion 48-52.

* 2. Woolf CJ, Mannion RJ. Neuropathic pain: aetiology, symptoms, mechanisms, and management. Lancet. 1999; 20.

* 3. Bennett GJ. Neuropathic pain. In: Wall PD, Melzack R,

Bonica JJ (eds). Textbook of pain. London: Churchill

4. England JD, Happel LT, Kline DG et al. Sodium channel accumulation in humans with painful neuromas.

5. Coward K, Plumpton C, Facer P et al. Immunolocalization of SNS/PN3 and NaN/SNS2 sodium channels in human pain states. Pain. 2000; 85: 41-50. * 23.

6. Novakovic SD, Tzoumaka E, McGivern JG et al. Distribution of the tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channel PN3 in rat sensory neurons in normal and neuropathic conditions.

Journal of Neuroscience. 1998; 18: 2174-87. 24.

7. Porreca F, Lai J, Bian D et al. A comparison of the potential role of the tetrodotoxin-insensitive sodium channels, PN3/ SNS and NaN/SNS2, in rat models of chronic pain.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the * 25.

United States of America. 1999; 96: 7640-4.

8. Ishikawa K, Tanaka M, Black JA, Waxman SG. Changes in expression of voltage-gated potassium channels in dorsal 26. root ganglion neurons following axotomy. Muscle and

9. Wall PD, Woolf CJ. The brief and the prolonged facilitatory 27. effects of unmyelinated afferent input on the rat spinal cord are independently influenced by peripheral nerve 28.

section. Neuroscience. 1986; 17: 1199-205. 10. Woolf CJ. Evidence for a central component of post-injury 29.

pain hypersensitivity. Nature. 1983; 306: 686-8.

* 11. Dotson RM. Clinical neurophysiology laboratory tests to assess the nociceptive system in humans. Journal of 30.

Clinical Neurophysiology. 1997; 14: 32-45. 12. Dyck PJ, O'Brien PC. Quantitative sensation testing in epidemiological and therapeutic studies of peripheral 31.

neuropathy. Muscle and Nerve. 1999; 22: 659-62.

* 13. Quarles RH, Weiss MD. Autoantibodies associated with peripheral neuropathy. Muscle and Nerve. 1999; 22: 800-22. * 32.

14. Said G. Indications and value of nerve biopsy. Muscle and

* 15. Asbury AK, Bird SJ. Disorders of peripheral nerves. In:

Asbury AK, McKhann GM, McDonald WI (eds). Diseases of the nervous system: clinical neurobiology, 2nd edn. 34.

Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1992: 252-69.

Johnson PC, Doll SC, Cromey DW. Pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Annals of Neurology. 1986; 19: 450-7. Thomas PK, Tomlinson DR. Diabetic and hypoglycemic neuropathy. In: Dyck PJ, Thomas PK, Griffin JW et al. (eds). Peripheral neuropathy. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1993: 1219-50.

Dyck PJ, Norell JE. Microvasculitis and ischemia in diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy. Neurology. 1999; 53: 2113-21.

Said G, Slama G, Selva J. Progressive centripetal degeneration of axons in small fibre diabetic polyneuropathy. Brain. 1983; 106: 791-807. Llewelyn JG, Gilbey SG, Thomas PK et al. Sural nerve morphometry in diabetic autonomic and painful sensory neuropathy. A clinicopathological study. Brain. 1991; 114: 867-92.

Feldman EL, Russell JW, Sullivan KA, Golovoy D. New insights into the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Current Opinion in Neurology 1999; 12: 553-63. Thomas PK. Diabetic neuropathy: mechanisms and future treatment options. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 1999; 67: 277-9. Windebank AJ. Polyneuropathy due to nutritional deficiency and alcoholism. In: Dyck PJ, Thomas PK, Griffin JW et al. (eds). Peripheral neuropathy. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1993: 1311-21.

Schaumburg H, Kaplan J, Windebank A et al. Sensory neuropathy from pyridoxine abuse. A new megavitamin syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine. 1983; 309: 445-8.

Windebank AJ. Metal neuropathy. In: Dyck PJ, Thomas PK, Griffin JW et al. (eds). Peripheral neuropathy. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1993: 1549-70.

Agocs MM, Etzel RA, Parrish RG et al. Mercury exposure from interior latex paint. New England Journal of

Medicine. 1990; 323: 1096-101.

Clarkson TW. Mercury - an element of mystery. New

England Journal of Medicine. 1990; 323: 1137-9.

Windebank AJ. Chemotherapeutic neuropathy. Current

Opinion in Neurology. 1999; 12: 565-71.

Moyle GJ, Sadler M. Peripheral neuropathy with nucleoside antiretrovirals: risk factors, incidence and management.

Drug Safety. 1998; 19: 481-94.

dideoxycytidine (ddC) toxic neuropathy: a study of 52

patients. Neurology. 1993; 43: 358-62.

Famularo G, Moretti S, Marcellini S et al. Acetyl-carnitine deficiency in AIDS patients with neurotoxicity on treatment with antiretroviral nucleoside analogues. AIDS.

Simmons Z. Paraproteinemia and neuropathy. Current

Opinion in Neurology. 1999; 12: 589-95.

Brady RO. Fabry disease. In: Dyck PJ, Thomas PK, Griffin JW

et al. (eds). Peripheral neuropathy. Philadelphia: WB

Saunders, 1993: 1169-78.

Dyck PJ. Neuronal atrophy and degeneration predominantly affecting peripheral sensory and autonomic

neurons. In: Dyck PJ, Thomas PK, Griffin JW et al. (eds). * 50.

Peripheral neuropathy. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1993: 1065-92.

Cummins TR, Dib-Hajj SD, Waxman SG. 51.

Electrophysiological properties of mutant Nav1.7 sodium channels in a painful inherited neuropathy. Journal of Neuroscience. 2004; 24: 8232-6.

Dib-Hajj SD, Rush AM, Cummins TR et al. Gain-of- 52.

function mutation in Nav1.7 in familial erythromelalgia induces bursting of sensory neurons. Brain. 2005; 128:

Rizzuto N, Cavallaro T, Monaco S et al. Role of HIV in the pathogenesis of distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy.

Acta Neuropathologica. 1995; 90: 244-50. 54.

Simpson DM, Olney RK. Peripheral neuropathies associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Neurologic * 55.

Clinics. 1992; 10: 685-711.

Ozawa A, Sasao Y, Iwashita K et al. HLA-A33 and -B44 and * 56. susceptibility to postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Tissue Antigens. 1999; 53: 263-8.

Wood MJ, Kay R, Dworkin RH et al. Oral acyclovir therapy 57.

accelerates pain resolution in patients with herpes zoster:

a meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials. Clinical

Jackson JL, Gibbons R, Meyer G, Inouye L. The effect of treating herpes zoster with oral acyclovir in preventing postherpetic neuralgia. A meta-analysis. Archives of 59.

Internal Medicine. 1997; 157: 909-12.

Dworkin RH, Boon RJ, Griffin DR, Phung D. Postherpetic neuralgia: impact of famciclovir, age, rash severity, and acute pain in herpes zoster patients. Journal 60.

of Infectious Diseases. 1998; 178 (Suppl. 1):


Ernst ME, Santee JA, Klepser TB. Oral corticosteroids for pain associated with herpes zoster. Annals of

Pharmacotherapy. 1998; 32: 1099-103. 61.

Watson CP, Evans RJ, Watt VR. Post-herpetic neuralgia and topical capsaicin. Pain. 1988; 33: 333-40.

Peikert A, Hentrich M, Ochs G. Topical 0.025% capsaicin in chronic post-herpetic neuralgia: efficacy, predictors of response and long-term course. Journal of Neurology. * 62.

Frucht-Pery J, Feldman ST, Brown SI. The use of capsaicin in herpes zoster ophthalmicus neuralgia. Acta 63.

Ophthalmologica Scandinavica. 1997; 75: 311-13.

Galer BS, Rowbotham MC, Perander J, Friedman E. 64.

Topical lidocaine patch relieves postherpetic neuralgia more effectively than a vehicle topical patch: 65.

results of an enriched enrollment study. Pain. 1999; 80:

Davies PS, Galer BS. Review of lidocaine patch 5% studies in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. Drugs. 2004; * 66.

Oxman MN, Levin MJ, Johnson GR et al. A vaccine to 67.

prevent herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in older adults. New England Journal of Medicine. 2005; 352: 2271-84.

Devor M. Nerve pathophysiology and mechanisms of pain in causalgia. Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System. 1983; 7: 371-84.

Chen Y, Michaelis M, Janig W, Devor M. Adrenoreceptor subtype mediating sympathetic-sensory coupling in injured sensory neurons. Journal of Neurophysiology. 1996; 76: 3721-30.

McLachlan EM, Janig W, Devor M, Michaelis M. Peripheral nerve injury triggers noradrenergic sprouting within dorsal root ganglia. Nature. 1993; 363: 543-6. Berman JS, Birch R, Anand P. Pain following human brachial plexus injury with spinal cord root avulsion and the effect of surgery. Pain. 1998; 75: 199-207. Smith BE. Inflammatory sensory polyganglionopathies. Neurologic Clinics. 1992; 10: 735-59. Grisold W, Drlicek M. Paraneoplastic neuropathy. Current Opinion in Neurology 1999; 12: 617-25. Holland NR, Crawford TO, Hauer P et al. Small-fiber sensory neuropathies: clinical course and neuropathology of idiopathic cases. Annals of Neurology. 1998; 44: 47-59. Larner AJ, Moss J, Rossi ML, Anderson M. Congenital insensitivity to pain: a 20 year follow up. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 1994; 57: 973-4. Dyck PJ, Mellinger JF, Reagan TJ et al. Not 'indifference to pain' but varieties of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy. Brain. 1983; 106: 373-90. Rosemberg S, Marie SK, Kliemann S. Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV). Pediatric Neurology. 1994; 11: 50-6.

Mardy S, Miura Y, Endo F et al. Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis: novel mutations in the TRKA (NTRK1) gene encoding a high-affinity receptor for nerve growth factor. American Journal of Human Genetics. 1999; 64: 1570-9.

Yotsumoto S, Setoyama M, Hozumi H et al. A novel point mutation affecting the tyrosine kinase domain of the TRKA gene in a family with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis. Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 1999; 112: 810-14.

Ginsberg L. Specific painful neuropathies. In: Cervero F, Jensen TS (eds). Handbook of clinical neurology. Edinburgh: Elsevier, 2006: 635-52. Hietaharju A, Croft R, Alam R et al. Chronic neuropathic pain in treated leprosy. Lancet. 2000; 356: 1080-1. Anand P, Pandya S, Ladiwala U et al. Depletion of nerve growth factor in leprosy. Lancet. 1994; 344: 129-30. Facer P, Mathur R, Pandya SS et al. Correlation of quantitative tests of nerve and target organ dysfunction with skin immunohistology in leprosy. Brain. 1998; 121: 2239-47.

Dyck PJ, Thomas PK, Griffin JW et al. Peripheral neuropathy. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1993: 1311-21. Fishbain DA, Cutler R, Rosomoff HL, Rosomoff RS. Evidence-based data from animal and human experimental studies on pain relief with antidepressants: a structured review. Pain Medicine. 2000; 1: 310-16.

68. Dubner R, Bennett GJ. Spinal and trigeminal mechanisms 84. of nociception. Annual Review of Neuroscience. 1983; 6: 381-418.

69. Guay DR. Adjunctive agents in the management of chronic pain. Pharmacotherapy. 2001; 21: 1070-81. 85.

* 70. Saarto T, Wiffen PJ. Antidepressants for neuropathic pain.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2005; CD005454.

71. Fields HL. Pain II: new approaches to management. Annals 86. of Neurology. 1981; 9: 101-06.

72. Morello CM, Leckband SG, Stoner CP et al. Randomized double-blind study comparing the efficacy of gabapentin with amitriptyline on diabetic peripheral neuropathy pain.

Archives of Internal Medicine. 1999; 159: 1931-7. 87.

* 73. Baldessarini RJ. Drugs for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. In: Hardman JG, Limbird LE, Gilman AG (eds).

Goodman & Gilman's the pharmacological basis of 88.

therapeutics, 10th edn. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill,

74. Sindrup SH, Bjerre U, Dejgaard A et al. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram relieves the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. Clinical Pharmacology 89.

and Therapeutics. 1992; 52: 547-52.

75. Sindrup SH, Gram LF, Brosen K et al. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine is effective in the 90.

treatment of diabetic neuropathy symptoms. Pain. 1990; 42: 135-44.

76. Reuben SS, Makari-Judson G, Lurie SD. Evaluation of efficacy of the perioperative administration of venlafaxine 91.

XR in the prevention of postmastectomy pain syndrome. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 2004; 27: 133-9.

77. Rowbotham MC, Goli V, Kunz NR, Lei D. Venlafaxine 92. extended release in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

78. Sindrup SH, Bach FW, Madsen C et al. Venlafaxine versus 93. imipramine in painful polyneuropathy: a randomized, controlled trial. Neurology. 2003; 60: 1284-9.

79. Raskin J, Pritchett YL, Wang F et al. A double-blind, randomized multicenter trial comparing duloxetine with placebo in the management of diabetic peripheral 94.

neuropathic pain. Pain Medicine. 2005; 6: 346-56.

80. Goldstein DJ, Lu Y, Detke MJ et al. Duloxetine vs. placebo in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy. Pain. 2005;

81. Blom S. Trigeminal neuralgia: its treatment with a new anticonvulsant drug (G-32883). Lancet. 1962; 1: 96.


82. Rizzo MA. Successful treatment of painful traumatic mononeuropathy with carbamazepine: insights into a 97. possible molecular pain mechanism. Journal of the

Neurological Sciences. 1997; 152: 103-06.

83. Suman-Chauhan N, Webdale L, Hill DR, Woodruff GN. 98. Characterisation of [3H]gabapentin binding to a novel site in rat brain: homogenate binding studies. European Journal of Pharmacology. 1993; 244: 293-301.

Gee NS, Brown JP, Dissanayake VU et al. The novel anticonvulsant drug, gabapentin (Neurontin), binds to the alpha2delta subunit of a calcium channel. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1996; 271: 5768-76. Gong HC, Hang J, Kohler W et al. Tissue-specific expression and gabapentin-binding properties of calcium channel alpha2delta subunit subtypes. Journal of Membrane Biology. 2001; 184: 35-43. Luo ZD, Chaplan SR, Higuera ES et al. Upregulation of dorsal root ganglion (alpha)2(delta) calcium channel subunit and its correlation with allodynia in spinal nerve-injured rats. Journal of Neuroscience. 2001; 21: 1868-75.

Hill CM, Balkenohl M, Thomas DW et al. Pregabalin in patients with postoperative dental pain. European Journal of Pain. 2001; 5: 119-24.

Sabatowski R, Galvez R, Cherry DA et al. Pregabalin reduces pain and improves sleep and mood disturbances in patients with post-herpetic neuralgia: results of a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Pain. 2004; 109: 26-35.

Dworkin RH, Corbin AE, Young Jr JP et al. Pregabalin for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Neurology. 2003; 60: 1274-83. Rosenstock J, Tuchman M, LaMoreaux L, Sharma U. Pregabalin for the treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Pain. 2004; 110: 628-38.

Lesser H, Sharma U, LaMoreaux L, Poole RM. Pregabalin relieves symptoms of painful diabetic neuropathy: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology. 2004; 63: 2104-10.

Richter RW, Portenoy R, Sharma U et al. Relief of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy with pregabalin: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Pain. 2005; 6: 253-60.

Freynhagen R, Strojek K, Griesing T et al. Efficacy of pregabalin in neuropathic pain evaluated in a 12-week, randomised, double-blind, multicentre, placebo-controlled trial of flexible- and fixed-dose regimens. Pain. 2005; 115: 254-63.

Solaro C, Uccelli MM, Brichetto G et al. Topiramate relieves idiopathic and symptomatic trigeminal neuralgia. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 2001; 21: 367-8.

Potter D. Potential role of topiramate in relief of neuropathic pain. Neurology. 1998; 50: A255. Zvartau-Hind M, Din MU, Gilani A et al. Topiramate relieves refractory trigeminal neuralgia in MS patients. Neurology. 2000; 55: 1587-8. Bajwa ZH, Sami N, Warfield CA, Wootton J. Topiramate relieves refractory intercostal neuralgia. Neurology. 1999; 52: 1917.

Edwards KR, Glanz MJ, Button J et al. Efficacy and safety of topiramate in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study Neurology. 2000; 54: A81.









Dallocchio C, Buffa C, Mazzarello P, Chiroli S. Gabapentin *115.

vs. amitriptyline in painful diabetic neuropathy: an open-

label pilot study. Journal of Pain and Symptom 116.

Management. 2000; 20: 280-5.

McQuay HJ. Neuropathic pain: evidence matters.

European Journal of Pain. 2002; 6 (Suppl. A): 11-18. 117.

Caterina MJ, Schumacher MA, Tominaga M et al. The capsaicin receptor: a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway. Nature. 1997; 389: 816-24. 118.

Westerman RA, Roberts RG, Kotzmann RR et al. Effects of topical capsaicin on normal skin and affected dermatomes in herpes zoster. Clinical and Experimental Neurology.

Lynn B. Capsaicin: actions on nociceptive C-fibres and therapeutic potential. Pain. 1990; 41: 61-9.

Anonymous. Treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy 120.

with topical capsaicin. A multicenter, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study. The Capsaicin Study Group.

Archives of Internal Medicine. 1991; 151: 2225-9. 121.

Rains C, Bryson HM. Topical capsaicin. A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic potential in post-herpetic neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy and *122.

osteoarthritis. Drugs and Aging. 1995; 7: 317-28.

Nolano M, Simone DA, Wendelschafer-Crabb G et al.

Topical capsaicin in humans: parallel loss of epidermal nerve fibers and pain sensation. Pain. 1999; 81: 135-45. 123.

Yosipovitch G, Maibach HI, Rowbotham MC. Effect of

EMLA pre-treatment on capsaicin-induced burning and hyperalgesia. Acta Dermato-venereologica. 1999; 79:

Robbins WR, Staats PS, Levine J et al. Treatment of intractable pain with topical large-dose capsaicin:

preliminary report. Anesthesia and Analgesia. 1998; 86:

Malmberg AB, Mizisin AP, Calcutt NA et al. Reduced heat sensitivity and epidermal nerve fiber immunostaining following single applications of a high-concentration 126.

capsaicin patch. Pain. 2004; 111: 360-7.

Rowbotham MC, Davies PS, Verkempinck C, Galer BS.

Lidocaine patch: double-blind controlled study of a new 127.

treatment method for post-herpetic neuralgia. Pain. 1996;

Litman SJ, Vitkun SA, Poppers PJ. Use of EMLA cream in *128.

the treatment of post-herpetic neuralgia. Journal of

Clinical Anesthesia. 1996; 8: 54-7.

De Benedittis G, Lorenzetti A. Topical aspirin/diethyl ether mixture versus indomethacin and diclofenac/diethyl ether *129.

mixtures for acute herpetic neuralgia and postherpetic neuralgia: a double-blind crossover placebo-controlled study. Pain. 1996; 65: 45-51. 130.

Nurmikko TJ, Nash TP, Wiles JR. Recent advances: control of chronic pain. British Medical Journal. 1998; 317:


Harati Y, Gooch C, Swenson M et al. Double-blind 131.

randomized trial of tramadol for the treatment of the pain of diabetic neuropathy. Neurology. 1998; 50: 1842-6.

McQuay H. Opioids in pain management. Lancet. 1999; 353: 2229-32.

Watson CP, Babul N. Efficacy of oxycodone in neuropathic pain: a randomized trial in postherpetic neuralgia. Neurology. 1998; 50: 1837-41. Gimbel JS, Richards P, Portenoy RK. Controlled-release oxycodone for pain in diabetic neuropathy: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology. 2003; 60: 927-34. Watson CP, Moulin D, Watt-Watson J et al. Controlled-release oxycodone relieves neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial in painful diabetic neuropathy. Pain. 2003; 105: 71-8.

Finnerup NB, Otto M, McQuay HJ et al. Algorithm for neuropathic pain treatment: an evidence based proposal. Pain. 2005; 118: 289-305.

Meyer GA, Fields HL. Causalgia treated by selective large fibre stimulation of peripheral nerve. Brain. 1972; 95: 163-8.

Kumar D, Marshall HJ. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy: amelioration of pain with transcutaneous electrostimulation. Diabetes Care. 1997; 20: 1702-05. Stanton-Hicks M, Salamon J. Stimulation of the central and peripheral nervous system for the control of pain. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology. 1997; 14: 46-62.

Cui JG, O'Connor WT, Ungerstedt U et al. Spinal cord stimulation attenuates augmented dorsal horn release of excitatory amino acids in mononeuropathy via a GABAergic mechanism. Pain. 1997; 73: 87-95. Yakhnitsa V, Linderoth B, Meyerson BA. Spinal cord stimulation attenuates dorsal horn neuronal hyperexcitability in a rat model of mononeuropathy. Pain. 1999; 79: 223-33.

Tesfaye S, Watt J, Benbow SJ et al. Electrical spinal-cord stimulation for painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy Lancet. 1996; 348: 1698-701. Kumar K, Toth C, Nath RK. Spinal cord stimulation for chronic pain in peripheral neuropathy. Surgical Neurology. 1996; 46: 363-9.

Lang P. The treatment of chronic pain by epidural spinal cord stimulation - a 15 year follow up; present status. Axone (Dartmouth, N.S.) 1997; 18: 71-3. Kumar K, Toth C, Nath RK, Laing P. Epidural spinal cord stimulation for treatment of chronic pain - some predictors of success. A 15-year experience. Surgical Neurology. 1998; 50: 110-20; discussion 20-1. Segal R, Stacey BR, Rudy TE et al. Spinal cord stimulation revisited. Neurological Research. 1998; 20: 391-6.

Kemler MA, Barendse GA, Van Kleef M et al. Electrical spinal cord stimulation in reflex sympathetic dystrophy: retrospective analysis of 23 patients. Journal of Neurosurgery. 1999; 90: 79-83. Murphy D, LaffyJ, O'Keeffe D. Electrical spinal cord stimulation for painful peripheral neuropathy secondary to coeliac disease. Gut. 1998; 42: 448-9.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Arthritis Joint Pain

Arthritis Joint Pain

Arthritis is a general term which is commonly associated with a number of painful conditions affecting the joints and bones. The term arthritis literally translates to joint inflammation.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment