References

Cure Arthritis Naturally

Beat Arthritis Naturally

Get Instant Access

1. Talley JJ. Selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2). Progress in Medicinal Chemistry. 1999; 36: 201-34.

2. Berd CB, Rowbotham MC. COX-2 Inhibitors: a status report. Technical Corner, IASP Newsletter. 1998.

3. The Information Centre. Prescription cost analysis: England 2005. Last updated April 2006, cited February 2008. Available from: www.ic.nhs.uk/pubs/ prescostanalysis2005.

4. Anonymous. NSAIDs and aspirin as an analgesic. In: Summary of prescription items dispensed according to British National Formulary classification. UK Prescription Cost Analysis Data. England: Crown copyright, SDIE, Department of Health, 1999.

* 5. Latham J, Davis BD. The socioeconomic impact of chronic pain. Disability and Rehabilitation. 1994; 16: 39-44.

6. Moore RA, Phillips CJ. Cost of NSAID adverse effects to the UK National Health Service. Journal of Medical Economics. 1999; 2: 45-55.

7. Antonov KIM, Isacson DGL. Prescription and nonprescription analgesic use in Sweden. Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 1998; 32: 485-9.

8. Porteous T, Bond C, Hannaford P, Sinclair H. How and why are non-prescription analgesics used in Scotland? Family Practice. 2005; 22: 78-85.

* 9. Tramer MR, Williams JE, Carroll D et al. Comparing analgesic efficacy of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs given by different routes in acute and chronic pain: 23.

A qualitative systematic review. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. 1998; 42: 71-9.

10. Sager DS, Bennett RM. Individualizing the risk/benefit ratio of NSAIDs in older patients. Geriatrics. 1992; 47: 24.

11. Tamblyn R, Berkson L, Dauphinee WD et al. Unnecessary prescribing of NSAIDs and the management of NSAID-related gastropathy in medical practice. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1997; 127: 429-38. 25.

12. Nielsen GL, S0rensen HT, Larsen H, Pedersen L. Risk of adverse birth outcome and miscarriage in pregnant users of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: population 26.

based observational study and case-control study. British Medical Journal. 2001; 322: 266-70.

13. Jones SF, Power I. Postoperative NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors: cardiovascular risks and benefits. British

Journal of Anaesthesia. 2005; 95: 281-4. 27.

* 14. Watson MC, Brookes ST, Kirwan JR, Faulkner A. Non aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for osteoarthritis of the knee (Cochrane Review). Cochrane 28.

Database of Systematic Reviews. 2000; CD000142.

* 15. Towheed T, Shea B, Wells G, Hochberg M. Analgesia and non-aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for osteoarthritis of the hip (Cochrane Review). Cochrane 29.

Database of Systematic Reviews. 2000; CD000517.

16. Poole Arcangelo V, Peterson AM (eds). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: a practical approach, 2nd edn. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams and 30. Wilkins, 2005: 519-56.

17. National Library for Health Evidence Based Medicine Q&A

service. Is there any evidence for modified release NSAIDs 31.

compared to standard preparations, used for musculoskeletal pain relief; London: NLH. Last updated: April 8, 2005; cited January 2008. Available from: www.clinicalanswers.nhs.uk/index.cfm?question=394. 32.

18. Mason L, Moore A, Edwards JE et al. Topical NSAIDs for chronic musculoskeletal pain: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2004; 5: 33. 28.

19. Shimp LA. Safety issues in the pharmacologic management of chronic pain in the elderly. 34.

Pharmacotherapy. 1998; 18: 1313-22.

20. Gallelli L, Colosimo M, Pirritano D et al. Retrospective evaluation of adverse drug reactions induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Clinical Drug Investigation. 2007; 27: 115-22. 35.

21. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Cardiovascular Safety of Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs: Overview of key data. Last updated August 2, 2005; cited January 2008. Available from: www.mhra.gov.uk/ home/idcplg?IdcService=SS_GET_PAGE&useSecondary 36. =true&ssDocName=C0N1004301&ssTargetNodeId=221.

* 22. Hernandez-Diaz S, Varas-Lorenzo C, Garcia Rodriguez LA.

Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and the risk of acute myocardial infarction. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2006; 98: 266-74. Bombardier C, Laine L, Reicin A et al. Comparison of upper gastrointestinal toxicity of rofecoxib and naproxen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. New England Journal of Medicine. 2000; 343: 1520-8. Silverstein FE, Faich G, Goldstein JL et al. Gastrointestinal toxicity with celecoxib vs. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: The CLASS Study: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2000; 284: 1247-55. Laine L. Gastrointestinal effects of NSAIDs and coxibs. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 2003; 25: S32-40.

Nielsen OH, Ainsworth M, Csillag C, Rask-Madsen J. Systematic review: coxibs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or no cyclooxygenase inhibitors in gastroenterological high-risk patients? Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2006; 23: 27-33. Savage R. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors: when should they be used in the elderly? Drugs and Aging. 2005; 22: 185-200.

Sanghi S, MacLaughlin EJ, Jewell CW et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors: a painful lesson. Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets. 2006; 6: 85-100.

Scott D. Solomon et al. Cardiovascular risk associated with Celecoxib in a clinical trial for colorectal adenoma prevention. New England Journal of Medicine. 2005; 352: 1071-80.

Arber N, Eagle CJ, Spicak J et al. Celecoxib for the prevention of colorectal adenomatous polyps. New England Journal of Medicine. 2006; 355: 885-95. ADAPT Research Group. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in the randomized, controlled Alzheimer's Disease Anti-Inflammatory Prevention Trial (ADAPT). PLoS Clinical Trials. 2006 Nov 17; 1: e33. Lagakos SW. Time-to-event analyses for long-term treatments-the APPROVe trial. New England Journal of Medicine. 2006; 355: 113-7.

Joint Formulary Committee. British National Formulary, 54th edn. London: British Medical Association and Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, 2007. Kearney PM, Baigent C, Godwin J etal. Do selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors and traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase the risk of atherothrombosis? Meta-analysis of randomised trials. British Medical Journal. 2006; 332: 1302-08. Graham DJ, Campen D, Hui R et al. Risk of acute myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death in patients treated with cyclo-oxygenase 2 selective and non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: nested case-control study. Lancet. 2005; 365: 475-81. Cannon CP, Curtis SP, FitzGerald GA et al. Cardiovascular outcomes with etoricoxib and diclofenac in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis in the Multinational Etoricoxib and Diclofenac Arthritis

Long-term (MEDAL) programme: a randomised comparison. Lancet. 2006; 368: 1771-81. Page J, Henry D. Consumption of NSAIDs and the development of congestive heart failure in elderly 51.

patients: an underrecognized public health problem. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2000; 160: 777-84. Hippisley-Cox J, Coupland C. Risk of myocardial infarction in patients taking cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors or conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: population based nested case-control analysis. British * 52.

Medical Journal. 2005; 330: 1366. Meagher EA. Balancing gastroprotection and cardioprotection with selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 53.

inhibitors: clinical implications. Drug Safety. 2003; 26: 913-24.

* 40. Hur C, Chan AT, Tramontano AC, Gazelle GS. Coxibs versus 54.

combination NSAID and PPI therapy for chronic pain: an exploration of the risks, benefits, and costs. Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 2006; 40: 1052-63.

European Medicines Agency. European Medicines Agency 55.

concludes action on COX-2 inhibitors. Last updated: June 27, 2005; cited February 2008. Available from: www.emea.europa.eu/pdfs/human/press/pr/6275705N.pdf Langford RM. Pain management today - what have we 56.

learned? Clinical Rheumatology 2006; 25: S2-S8. Hawkey CJ. The gastroenterologist's caseload: Contribution of the rheumatologist. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatology 1997; 26: 11-15. 57.

Schnitzer TJ, Burmester GR, Mysler E et al. Comparison of lumiracoxib with naproxen and ibuprofen in the Therapeutic Arthritis Research and Gastrointestinal Event Trial (TARGET), reduction in ulcer complications: 58.

randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2004; 364: 665-74.

* 45. Williams HJ, Ward JR, Egger MJ et al. Comparison of naproxen and acetaminophen in a two-year study of 59.

treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1993; 36: 1196-206. Hippisley-Cox J, Coupland C, Logan R. Risk of adverse gastrointestinal outcomes in patients taking cyclo- 60.

oxygenase-2 inhibitors or conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: population based nested case- 61.

control analysis. British Medical Journal. 2005; 331: 1310-6.

MacDonald TM, Morant SV, Robinson GC et al. Association 62.

of upper gastrointestinal toxicity of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs with continued exposure: cohort 63. study. British Medical Journal. 1997; 315: 1333-7. Henry D, Lim LLY, Rodriguez LAG et al. Variability in risk of gastrointestinal complications with individual non- 64. steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: results of a collaborative meta-analysis. British Medical Journal. 1996; 312: 1563-6.

Laine L, Connors LG, Reicin A et al. Serious lower 65.

gastrointestinal clinical events with nonselective NSAID or coxib use. Gastroenterology 2003; 124: 288-92. Hernandez-Diaz S, Rodriguez LA. Association between 66.

nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and upper

gastrointestinal tract bleeding/perforation: an overview of epidemiologic studies published in the 1990s. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2000; 160: 2093-9. Silverstein FE, Faich G, Goldstein JL et al. Gastrointestinal toxicity with celecoxib vs nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: the CLASS study: A randomized controlled trial. Celecoxib Long-term Arthritis Safety Study. Journal of American Medical Association. 2000; 284: 1247-55. Rostom A, Dube C, Wells G et al. Prevention of NSAID-induced gastroduodenal ulcers. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2002; CD002296. Spiegel BM, Farid M, Dulai GS et al. Comparing rates of dyspepsia with Coxibs vs NSAID+PPI: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Medicine. 2006; 119: 448.e27-36. Sturtevant J. NSAID-induced bronchospasm - a common and serious problem. A report from MEDSAFE, the New Zealand Medicines and Medical Devices Safety Authority. New Zealand Dental Journal. 1999; 95: 84. Jenkins C, Costello J, Hodge L. Systematic review of prevalence of aspirin induced asthma and its implications for clinical practice. British Medical Journal. 2004; 328: 434. Review.

SzczeklikA, Nizankowska E, Duplaga M. Natural history of aspirin-induced asthma. AIANE Investigators. European Network on Aspirin-Induced Asthma. European Respiratory Journal. 2000; 16: 432-6. British National Formulary (BNF). Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs. London: British Medical Association and Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, 2007: 10.1.1.

Nuki G. Pain control and the use of non-steroidal analgesic anti-inflammatory drugs. British Medical Bulletin. 1990; 46: 262-78.

Crofford LJ. COX-2: Where are we in 2003? - Specific cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease. Arthritis Research and Therapy. 2003; 5: 25-7.

Murray MD, Brater DC. Effects of NSAIDs on the kidney.

Progress in Drug Research. 1997; 49: 155-71.

Harris RC. An update on cyclooxygenase-2 expression and metabolites in the kidney. Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension. 2008; 17: 64-9.

Stuart R, Rodger C. Analgesic-induced renal damage.

Prescribers' Journal. 2000; 40: 151-64.

Pugliese F, Cinotti GA. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID's) and the kidney. Nephrology Dialysis

Transplantation. 1997; 12: 386-8.

Cangiano JL, Figuerao J, Palmer R. Renal hemodynamic effects of nabumetone, sulindac and placebo in patients with osteoarthritis. Clinical Therapeutics. 1999; 21:

503-12.

Sandhu GK, Heyneman CA. Nephrotoxic potential of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors. Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 2004; 38: 700-4. Review. Schneider V, Levesque LE, Zhang B et al. Association of selective and conventional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with acute renal failure: a population-based, nested case- control analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2006; 164: 881-9.

67. Rubenstein JH, Laine L. Systematic review: the hepatotoxicity of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2004; 20: 373-80.

68. MHRA. Drug safety Update vol 1 issue 4. Last updated November 2007; cited February 2008. Available from: www.mhra.gov.uk/home/idcplg?IdcService= SS_GET_PAGE&useSecondary =true&ssDocName= C0N2032916&ssTargetNodeId=1100.

69. Horlocker TT, Wedel DJ, Benzon H et al. Regional anesthesia in the anticoagulated patient: defining the risks. (The second ASRA Consensus Conference on Neuraxial Anesthesia and Anticoagulation). Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. 2003; 28: 172-97.

70. Galati G, Tafazoli S, Sabzevari 0 et al. Idiosyncratic NSAID drug induced oxidative stress. Chemico-Biological Interactions. 2002; 142: 25-41.

71. Roujeau JC. Clinical aspects of skin reactions to NSAIDs. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology. Supplement. 1987; 65: 131-4. Review.

72. Sanchez-Borges M, Capriles-Hulett A, Caballero-Fonseca F. Risk of skin reactions when using ibuprofen-based medicines. Expert Opinion on Drug Safety. 2005; 4: 837-48. Review.

* 73. Tramer MR, Moore RA, Reynolds DJM, McQuay HJ.

Quantitative estimation of rare adverse events which follow a biological progression: a new model applied to chronic NSAID use. Pain. 2000; 85: 169-82.

74. Li DK, Liu L, Odouli R. Exposure to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs during pregnancy and risk of miscarriage: population based cohort study. British Medical Journal. 2003; 327: 368.

75. Warner TD, Giuliano F, Vojnovic I et al. Nonsteroid drug selectivities for cyclo-oxygenase-1 rather than cyclo-oxygenase-2 are associated with human gastrointestinal toxicity: A full in vitro analysis. Pharmacology. 1999; 96: 7563-8.

76. Flynn BL. Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: current and future therapies. American Pharmacy. 1994; 34: 31-7.

* 77. Schnitzer TJ, Ferraro A, Hunsche E, Kong SX. A

comprehensive review of clinical trials on the efficacy and safety of drugs for the treatment of low back pain. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 2004; 28: 72-95.

78. van Tulder MW, Scholten RJ, Koes BW, Deyo RA. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for low back pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2000; CD000396.

79. Benson GD. Hepatotoxicity following the therapeutic use of antipyretic analgesics. American Journal of Medicine. 1983; 75: 85-93.

80. Simon LS, Weaver AL, Graham DY et al. Anti-inflammatory and upper gastrointestinal effects of celecoxib in rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1999; 282: 1921-8.

81. Emery P, Zeidler H, Kvien TK et al. Celecoxib versus diclofenac in long-term management of rheumatoid arthritis: randomised double-blind comparison. Lancet. 1999; 354: 2106-11.

82. Gotzsche PC, Johansen HK. Short-term low-dose corticosteroids vs placebo and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs in rheumatoid arthritis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2000; CD000189.

* 83. Wolfe F, Zhao S, Lane N. Preference for nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs over acetaminophen by rheumatic disease patients. A survey of 1,799 patients with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and fibromyalgia. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 2000; 43: 378-85.

84. Bradley JD, Brandt KD, Katz BP et al. Treatment of knee osteoarthritis: relationship of clinical features of joint inflammation to the response to a nonsteroidal antiinflamatory drug or pure analgesic. Journal of Rheumatology. 1992; 19: 1950-4.

85. Kingery WS. A critical review of controlled clinical trials for peripheral neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndromes. Pain. 1997; 73: 123-9.

86. Sheather-Reid RB, Cohen ML. Efficacy of analgesics in chronic pain: A series of N-of-1 studies. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 1998; 15: 244-52.

87. Page J, Henry D. Consumption of NSAIDs and the development of congestive heart failure in elderly patients. An underrecoggnized public health problem. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2000; 160: 777-84.

88. Neal B, RodgersA, Dunn L, Fransen M. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for preventing heterotopic bone formation after hip arthroplasty. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2000; CD001160.

89. Fransen M, Neal B. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for preventing heterotopic bone formation after hip arthroplasty. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2004; CD001160.

90. Gerstenfeld LC, Einhorn TA. COX inhibitors and their effects on bone healing. Expert Opinion on Drug Safety. 2004; 3: 131-6.

91. Ferrell BR, Ferrell BA. Management of chronic pain in the Elderly: Pharmacology of opioids and other analgesic drugs. In: Ferrell BR, Ferrell BA (eds). Pain in the elderly. Seattle, WA: IASP Press, 1996: 21-34.

92. Fick DM, Cooper JW, Wade WE et al. Updating the Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults: results of a US consensus panel of experts. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2003; 163: 2716-24.

93. D'Arcy PF. Paracetamol. Adverse Drug Reactions and Toxicological Reviews. 1997; 16: 9-14.

94. Remy C, Marret E, Bonnet F. State of the art of paracetamol in acute pain therapy. Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology. 2006; 19: 562-5.

95. SchnitzerTJ. Non-NSAID Pharmacologic treatment options for the management of chronic pain. American Journal of Medicine. 1998; 105: 45S-52.

96. Chandrasekharan NV, Dai H, Roos KL et al. COX-3, a cyclooxygenase-1 variant inhibited by acetaminophen and

102.

103.

104.

105.

106.

107.

other analgesic/antipyretic drugs: cloning, structure, and 109.

expression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2002; 99: 13926-31.

Hinz B, Cheremina O, Brune K. Acetaminophen 110.

(paracetamol) is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor in man. The FASEB journal: official publication of the

Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 111.

de Craen AJ, Di Giulio G, Lampe-Schoenmaeckers JE et al.

Analgesic efficacy and safety of paracetamol-codeine 112.

combinations versus paracetamol alone: a systemic review. British Medical Journal. 1996; 313: 321-5.

Anonymous 2004. Weak opiate analgesics: modest practical merits. Prescribe International. 2004; 13: 22-5. 113.

Langford RM. Pain management today - what have we learned? Clinical Rheumatology 2006; 25: S2-8.

Peloso PM, Fortin L, Beaulieu A et al. Analgesic efficacy and safety of tramadol/ acetaminophen combination 114.

tablets (Ultracet) in treatment of chronic low back pain: a multicenter, outpatient, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial. Journal of Rheumatology. 2004; 31: 115.

2454-63.

Diener HC, Pfaffenrath V, Pageler L et al. The fixed combination of acetylsalicylic acid, paracetamol and caffeine is more effective than single substances and dual 116.

combination for the treatment of headache: a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, single-dose, placebo-controlled parallel group study. Cephalalgia. 2005; 25: 776-87. 117.

Jenkins C. Recommending analgesics for people with asthma. American Journal of Therapeutics. 2000; 7:

55-61. Review.

Jenkins C, Costello J, Hodge L. Systematic review of prevalence of aspirin induced asthma and its implications for clinical practice. British Medical Journal. 2004; 328: 434.

Insel PA. Analgesic-antipyretics and antiinflammatory agents; drugs employed in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and gout. In: Goodman LS, Gilman AG (eds). The pharmacological basis of therapeutics, 8th edn. New York: McGraw-Hill Inc, 1990.

McKeever TM, Lewis SA, Smit HA et al. The association of 120.

acetaminophen, aspirin, and ibuprofen with respiratory disease and lung function. American Journal of

Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2005; 171:

966-71.

Vickers FN. Mucosal effects of aspirin and acetaminophen: 121.

report of a controlled gastroscopic study. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 1967; 14: 94-9.

Henrich WL, Agodoa LE, Barrett B et al. Analgesics and the kidney: summary and recommendations to the scientific advisory board of the National Kidney Foundation. American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 1996; 27: 162-5.

118.

119.

Larson AM, Poison J, Fontana RJ et al. Acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure: results of a United States multicenter, prospective study. Hepatology. 2005; 42: 1364-72.

Forrest JA, Adriaenssens P, Finlayson ND, Prescott LF. Paracetamol metabolism in chronic liver disease. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1979; 15: 427-31. Andreasen PB, Hutters L. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) clearance in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Acta Medica Scandinavica. 1979; 624: 99-105. Farrell GC, Cooksley WGE, Powell LW. Drug metabolism in liver disease: activity of hepatic microzomal metabolizing enzymes. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 1979; 26: 483-92.

Hawton K, Simkin S, Deeks J. Co-proxamol and suicide: a study of national mortality statistics and local non-fatal self poisonings. British Medical Journal. 2003; 326: 1006-08.

Bannwarth B, Pehourcq F. [Pharmacologic basis for using paracetamol: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic issues]. Drugs. 2003; 63: 5-13. James B, Mowry R, Furbee B, Chyka PA. Poisoning. In: Chernow B (ed.). The pharmacological approach to the critically ill patient, 3rd edn. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 1994.

Bertin P, Keddad K, Jolivet-Landreau I. Acetaminophen as symptomatic treatment of pain from osteoarthritis. Joint, Bone, Spine. 2004; 71: 266-74. Altman RD, Zinsenheim JR, Temple AR, Schweinle JE. Three-month efficacy and safety of acetaminophen extended-release for osteoarthritis pain of the hip or knee: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2007; 15: 454-61. Nikles CJ, Yelland M, Del Mar C, Wilkinson D. The role of paracetamol in chronic pain: an evidence-based approach. American Journal of Therapeutics. 2005; 12: 80-91. Muller FO, Odendaal CL, Muller FR et al. Comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of a paracetamol/codeine fixed-dose combination with tramadol in patients with refractory chronic back pain. Arzneimittel-Forschung. 1998; 48: 675-9.

Lipton RB, Stewart WF, Ryan Jr RE et al. Efficacy and safety of acetaminophen, aspirin, and caffeine in alleviating migraine headache pain: three double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Archives of Neurology. 1998; 55: 210-7. Diener HC, Pfaffenrath V, Pageler L et al. The fixed combination of acetylsalicylic acid, paracetamol and caffeine is more effective than single substances and dual combination for the treatment of headache: a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, single-dose, placebo-controlled parallel group study. Cephalalgia. 2005; 25: 776-87.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis

Thank you for deciding to learn more about the disorder, Osteoarthritis. Inside these pages, you will learn what it is, who is most at risk for developing it, what causes it, and some treatment plans to help those that do have it feel better. While there is no definitive “cure” for Osteoarthritis, there are ways in which individuals can improve their quality of life and change the discomfort level to one that can be tolerated on a daily basis.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment