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6. Millar WJ. Patterns of use - alternative health care practitioners. Health Reports. 2001; 13: 9-21.

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13. Sipkoff M. Steadily, plans increase coverage of unorthodox medical therapies. Managed Care. 2005; 14: 59-60.

14. Pal B, Morris J. Rheumatologists and complementary medicine. Rheumatology in Practice. 1996; 3: 18-20.

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16. Reilly D. Comments on complementary and alternative medicine in Europe. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2001; 7: S23-31.

17. Maizes V, Silverman H, Lebensohn P et al. The integrative family medicine program: an innovation in residency education. Academic Medicine. 2006; 81: 583-9.

18. Varga 0, Marton S, Molnar P. Status of complementary and alternative medicine in European medical schools. Forschende Komplementarmedizin. 2006; 13: 41-5.

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20. Brokaw JJ, Tunnicliff G, Raess BU, Saxon DW. The teaching of complementary and alternative medicine in U.S. medical schools: a survey of course directors. Academic Medicine. 2002; 77: 876-81.

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25. Dunne R, Watkins J. Complementary medicine - some definitions. Journal of the Royal Society of Health. 1997; 43. 117: 287-91.

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31. Martin DP, Sletten CD, Williams BA, Berger IH. 49. Improvement in fibromyalgia symptoms with acupuncture:

Results of a randomized controlled trial. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2006; 81: 749-57.

32. Assefi NP, Sherman KJ, Jacobsen C et al. A randomized 50. clinical trial of acupuncture compared with sham acupuncture in fibromyalgia. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2005; 143: 10-19.

33. Berman BM, Lao L, Langenberg P et al. Effectiveness of 51. acupuncture as adjunctive therapy in osteoarthritis of the knee. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2004; 141 : 901-10.

34. Belgrade M. Two decades after Ping-Pong diplomacy: Is 52. there a role for acupuncture in American pain medicine?

35. Romaguera C, Grimalt F. Nickel dermatitis from acupuncture needles. Contact Dermatitis. 1979; 5: 195. 53.

36. Dunn PA, Rogers D, Halford K. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation at acupuncture points in the induction of uterine contractions. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1989; 54.

37. Yn YK, Lin JT, Robins J. Acupuncture for the induction of 55. cervical dilation in preparation for first trimester abortions and its influence on HCG. Journal of Reproductive 56.

38. Bodner G, Toplisky M, Greif J. Pneumothorax as a complication of acupuncture in the treatment of 57.

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39. Muzal DA, King T, Harvey J et al. Bilateral pneumothorax after acupuncture (letter). New England Journal of 58.

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40. Ritter HD, Tarala R. Pneumothorax after acupuncture. British Journal of Medicine. 1978; 2: 602-03.

Kondo A, Tsunemaro K, Ishikawa J et al. Injury to the spinal cord produced by acupuncture needle. Surgical Neurology. 1979; 11: 155-6.

Murata K, Nishio A, Nishikawa M et al. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and spinal root injury caused by acupuncture needle. Neurologia Medico-Chirurgica. 1990; 30: 956-9.

Siraishi S, Goto I, Kuroiwa Y et al. Spinal cord injury as a complication of acupuncture. Neurology. 1979; 29: 1180-2.

Southworth SR, Hartwig RH. Foreign body in the median nerve: a complication of acupuncture. Journal of Hand Surgery. 1990; 15: 111-12.

Boxall EH. Acupuncture hepatitis in the West Midlands, 1977. Journal of Medical Virology. 1979; 2: 377-9. Hepatitis B associated with acupuncture - Florida. MMWR. 1981; 30: 1-3.

Mayer DJ, Price DD, Rafii A. Antagonism of acupuncture analgesia in man by the narcotic antagonist naloxone. Brain Research. 1977; 121: 368-72. Ha H, Tan E, Fukunaga H et al. Naloxone reversal of acupuncture analgesia in the monkey. Experimental Neurology. 1981; 73: 298-303.

Pomeranz B, Cheng R. Suppression of noxious responses in single neurons of cat spinal cord by electroacupuncture and reversal by the opiate antagonist naloxone. Experimental Neurology. 1979; 64: 327-49. Tsunoda Y, Shakahira K, Nakano S et al. Antagonism of acupuncture analgesia by naloxone in unconscious man. Bulletin of Tokyo Medical and Dental University. 1980; 27: 89-94.

Clement-Jones V, McLoughlin L, Tomlin S et al. Increased beta endorphin but not met-enkephalin levels in human cerebrospinal fluid after acupuncture for recurrent pain. Lancet. 1980; 2: 946-9.

Pert A, Dionne R, Ng L et al. Alteration in rat central nervous system endorphins following transauricular electroacupuncture analgesia in the periaqueductal gray of the rabbit. Brain Research. 1984; 322: 289-96. Han JS, Terenius L. Neurochemical basis of acupuncture analgesia. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 1982; 22: 193-220. Fugh-Berman A. Alternative medicine: what works. Tucson, AZ: Odonian Press, 1996.

Vithoulkas G. The science of homeopathy. New York: Grove Press, 1980.

Coulter H. Homeopathic science and modern medicine: the physics of healing with microdoses. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 1980.

Vallance AK. Can biological activity be maintained at ultra-high dilution? An overview of homeopathy, evidence, and Bayesian philosophy. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 1998; 4: 49-76. Vickers AJ, Fisher P, Smith C et al. Homeopathic Arnica 30x is ineffective for muscle soreness after long-distance running: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clinical Journal of Pain. 1998; 14: 227-31.

59. Ernst E, Pittler MH. Efficacy of homeopathic arnica: a systematic review of placebo controlled-trials. Archives of Surgery. 1998; 133: 1187-90.

60. Davenas E, Beauvais F, Amara J et al. Human basophil degranulation triggered by very dilute antiserum against IgE. Nature. 1988; 333: 816-18.

61. Witt CM, Ludtke R, Baur R, Willich SN. Homeopathic medical practice: long-term results of a cohort study with 3981 patients. BMC Public Health. 2005; 5: 115.

62. Cucherat M, Haugh MC, Gooch M, Boissel JP. Evidence of clinical efficacy of homeopathy. A meta-analysis of clinical trials. HMRAG. Homeopathic Medicines Research Advisory Group. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 2000; 56: 27-33.

63. Linde K, Clausius N, Ramirez G et al. Are the clinical effects of homeopathy placebo effects? A meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials. Lancet. 1997; 350: 834-43.

64. Goldstein MS, Glik D. Use of and satisfaction with homeopathy in a patient population. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine. 1998; 4: 60-5.

65. Potier JP. Bromate intoxication due to the ingestion of a dose prescribed by a homeopathist (letter). Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation. 1998; 13: 2978-9.

66. Kaptchuk TJ, Eisenberg DM. Chiropractic: origins, controversies, and contributions. Archives of Internal Medicine. 1998; 158: 2215-24.

67. Bigos S, Bowyer O, Braen B et al. Clinical practice guideline No. 14: Acute low back problems in adults. Rockville, MD: US Dept of Health and Human Services, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, 1994, publication 95-0842.

68. Cherkin DC, MacCormack FA. Patient evaluation of low back pain care from family physicians and chiropractors. Western Journal of Medicine. 1989; 150: 351-5.

69. Assendelft WJ, Morton SC, Yu EI etal. Spinal manipulative therapy for low back pain. A meta-analysis of effectiveness relative to other therapies. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2003; 138: 871-81.

70. Gross AR, Hoving JL, Haines TA et al. A Cochrane review of manipulation and mobilization for mechanical neck disorders. Spine. 2004; 29: 1541-8.

71. Fernandez-de-Las-Penas C, Alonso-Blanco C, Cuadrado ML et al. Are manual therapies effective in reducing pain from tension-type headache?: A systematic review. Clinical Journal of Pain. 2006; 22: 278-85.

72. Senstad O, Leboeuf-Yde C, Borchgrevink C. Frequency and characteristics of side effects of spinal manipulative therapy. Spine. 1997; 22: 435-40.

73. Stevinson C, Ernst E. Risks associated with spinal manipulation. American Journal of Medicine. 2002; 112: 566-71.

74. Powell PC, Hanigan WC, Olivero WC. A risk/benefit analysis of spinal manipulation therapy for relief of lumbar or cervical pain. Neurosurgery. 1993; 33: 73-8.

75. Rothwell DM, Bondy SJ, Williams JI. Chiropractic manipulation and stroke; a population-based case-control study. Stroke. 2001; 32: 1054-60.

76. Integrative Medicine Communications. A physician's reference to botanical medicines. The Integrative Medicine Consult (supp) 1999.

77. World Health Organization. Guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicine. Geneva: WHO, 1991.

78. Mitka M. FDA never promised an herb garden - but sellers and buyers eager to see one grow. Journal ofthe American Medical Association. 1998; 280: 1554-6.

79. Barrows KA, Jacobs BP. Mind-body medicine, an introduction and review of the literature. Medical Clinics of North America. 2002; 86: 11-31.

80. Astin JA. Mind-body therapies for the management of pain. Clinical Journal of Pain. 2004; 20: 27-32.

81. Hadhazy VA, Ezzo J, Creamer P, Berman BM. Mind-body therapies for the treatment of fibromyalgia. A systematic review. Journal of Rheumatology. 2000; 27: 2911-8.

82. DiNucci EM. Energy healing: a complementary treatment for orthopaedic and other conditions. Orthopaedic Nursing. 2005; 24: 259-69.

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85. Astin JA, Harkness E, Ernst E. The efficacy of distant healing: a systematic review of randomized trials. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2000; 132: 903-10.

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24 Pain in neurological disease 323 Paul R Nandi

25 Peripheral neuropathies 335

Ravikiran Shenoy, Katherine Roberts, and Praveen Anand

26 HIV and AIDS 352 Sarah Cox and Andrew SC Rice

27 Complex regional pain syndromes 362

Peter R Wilson

28 Central neuropathic pain: syndromes, pathophysiology, and treatments 374

James C Watson

29 Spinal cord injury 388

Philip J Siddall and Paul J Wrigley

30 Chronic pain after surgery 405

William Macrae and Julie Bruce

31 Postamputation pain 414

Lone Nikolajsen and Signe Koch

32 Herpes zoster pain including shingles and postherpetic neuralgia 429

Robert W Johnson

33 Management of painful spasticity 440

Barry Rawicki

34 Headache 450

Peer Tfelt-Hansen and Rigmor Jensen

35 Facial pain 467 Peter Svensson and Lene Baad-Hansen

36 Neck pain and whiplash 484 Nikolai Bogduk

37 Chronic back pain 501

Randy A Shelerud

38 Chronic joint pain 518

Tanya Baqai, Ali Jawad, and Bruce Kidd

39 Therapies for chronic chest pain 537

Ivan N Ramos-Galvez and Glyn R Towlerton

40 Chronic abdominal, groin, and perineal pain of visceral origin 549

Timothy J Ness

41 Chronic pelvic pain 570

Andrea J Rapkin and Monica Lee

42 Fibromyalgia and myofascial pain: mechanisms to management 599

Serena F Carville and Ernest H Choy

43 Psychiatric diagnosis and chronic pain 614

Stephen P Tyrer

44 Chronic pain in children 623

Navil F Sethna, Alyssa Lebel, and Lisa Scharff

45 Principles of chronic pain therapy in elderly patients 641

John Hughes and Chris Dodds

46 Pain management and substance misuse 652

Cathy Stannard

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