References

Medical management of acute cervical radicular pain an evidence-based approach. Newcastle Newcastle Bone and Joint Institute, 1999. Bogduk N. Cervical pain. In Ashbury AK, McKhann GM, McDonald WI et al. (eds). Disease of the nervous system. Clinical neuroscience and therapeutic principles. Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 2002 742-59. Bogduk N. Neck and arm pain. In Aminoff MJ, Daroff RB (eds). Encyclopedia of the neurological sciences, Vol. 3. Amsterdam Academic Press, 2003...

Breakthrough or flareup pain

Breakthrough pain (BTP), a term derived from cancer pain management, is defined as a transient exacerbation of pain that breaks through an existing, effective analgesic Incident pain (IP) is a frequent, predictable pain exacerbation brought on by certain activities, such as weight-bearing in chronic low back pain or after surgery this may occur on a background of continuous pain or the patient may be pain free between episodes.3 Episodic pain (EP) is defined as a spontaneous episode of...

Index

This index covers the chapters in this volume only. A combined index covering all four volumes in the Clinical Pain Management series is available as a pdf on the accompanying website www.clinicalpainmanagement.co.uk An F following a page reference indicates that the reference is to a figure a T indicates that the reference is to a table. To save space in the index, the following abbreviations have been used CAM - complementary and alternative medicine CBT - cognitive-behavior(al) therapy CPSP...

Classification Excess The Multiplicity Of Pain And Suffering

Pain and suffering are especially resistant to definition because they are plural concepts. The history of pain is a record of pain's multiple re-inventions.50 The English word pain'' refers to innumerable different experiences linked together not by a common essence (or by an immutable shared core) but by what philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein calls family resemblances'' (cited in Ref. 51). Pain (an abstract concept) exists only through concrete, multiple, and very distinctive pains. Even if we...

Acupuncture technique

Needles are generally made of stainless steel, but are sometimes gold or silver to achieve energizing or sedating effects. Twenty-eight- to 32-gauge solid needles are used. The length of the needle and depth of penetration depends on the thickness of the underlying soft tissue. Many acupuncture points overlie muscle and the depth of needle insertion is usually to the center of the muscle belly. Needles may be inserted perpendicularly, obliquely, or tangentially. The acupuncturist usually tries...

Chronic neck pain

6dermatome Map

In order to rule out serious causes of pain, MR imaging of the cervical spine is the most appropriate screening test. Thereafter the possible sources of idiopathic pain are the muscles, ligaments, and joints of the cervical spine. For muscles, there are no validated investigations. Some practitioners elect to inject tender points in cervical muscles, but usually as a form of treatment. No studies have validated intramuscular injections as a diagnostic test of neck pain. Tears of the transverse...