References

Cure Arthritis Naturally

Beat Arthritis Naturally

Get Instant Access

1. Boumpas DT, Austin HA 3rd, Fessler BJ, Balow JE, Klippel JH, Lockshin MD (1995) Systemic lupus erythematosus: emerging concepts. Part 1. Renal, neuropsychiatry cardiovascular, pulmonary, and hematologic disease. Ann Intern Med 122:940-950

2. Arbuckle MR, McClain MT, Rubertone MV, Scofield RH, Dennis GJ, James JA, Harley JB (2003) Development of autoantibodies before the clinical onset of systemic lupus erythematosus. N Engl J Med 349:1526-1533

3. Wakeland EK, Liu K, Graham RR, Behrens TW (2001) Delineating the genetic basis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Immunity 15:397-408

4. Cervera R, Khamashta MA, Font J, Sebastiani GD, Gil A, Lavilla P, Domenech I, Aydintug AO, Jedryka-Goral A, de Ramon E et al (1993) Systemic lupus erythematosus: clinical and immunologic patterns of disease expression in a cohort of 1,000 patients. The European Working Party on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Medicine (Baltimore) 72:113-124

5. Tucker LB, Menon S, Schaller JG, Isenberg DA (1995) Adult- and childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: a comparison of onset, clinical features, serology, and outcome. Br J Rheumatol.34:866-872

6. Font J, Pallares L, Cervera R, Lopez-Soto A, Navarro M, Bosch X, Ingelmo M (1991) Systemic lupus erythematosus in the elderly: clinical and immunological characteristics. Ann Rheum Dis 50:702-705

7. Lahita RG, Bradlow HL, Ginzler E, Pang S, New M (1987) Low plasma androgens in women with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 30:241-248

8. Lahita RG, Bradlow HL, Kunkel HG, Fishman J (1979) Alterations of estrogen metabolism in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 22:1195-1198

9. Pimstone BL (1968) S.L.E. cells after oral contraceptives. Lancet 25:1153

10. Chapel TA, Burns RE (1971) Oral contraceptives and exacerbation of lupus erythematosus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 110:366-369

11. Travers RL, Hughes GR (1978) Oral contraceptive therapy and systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol 5:448-451

12. Garovich M, Agudelo C, Pisko E (1980) Oral contraceptives and systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 23:1396-1398

13. Furukawa F, Tachibana T, Imamura S, Tamura T (1991) Oral contraceptive-induced lupus erythematosus in a Japanese woman. J Dermatol 18:56-58

14. Barrett C, Neylon N, Snaith ML (1986) Oestrogen-induced systemic lupus erythematosus. Br J Rheumatol 25:300-301

15. Jungers P, Liote F, Dehaine V, Dougados M, Viriot J, Pelissier C, Kuttenn F (1990) Hormonal contraception and lupus (in French; review). Ann Med Interne (Paris) 141:253-256

16. Julkunen HA (1991) Oral contraceptives in systemic lupus erythematosus: side-effects and influence on the activity of SLE. Scand J Rheumatol 20:427-433

17. Buyon JP, Belmont HM, Kalunian KC (1995) Postmenopausal hormone therapy and systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Intern Med 123:961

18. Arden NK, Lloyd ME, Spector TD, Hughes GR (1994) Safety of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Lupus 3:11-13

19. Kreidstein S, Urowitz MB, Gladman DD, Gough J (1997) Hormone replacement therapy in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol 24:2149-2152

20. Mok CC, Lau CS, Ho CT, Lee KW, Mok MY, Wong RW (1998) Safety of hormonal replacement therapy in postmenopausal patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Scand J Rheumatol 27:342-346

21. Sanchez-Guerrero J, Liang MH, Karlson EW, Hunter DJ, Colditz GA (1995) Postmenopausal estrogen therapy and the risk for developing systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Intern Med 122:430-433

22. Sanchez-Guerrero J, Karlson EW, Liang MH, Hunter DJ, Speizer FE, Colditz GA (1997) Use of oral contraceptives and the risk of developing systemic lupus ery-thematosus. Arthritis Rheum 40:804-808

23. Buyon JP, Petri M, Kim M, Kalunian K, Grossman J, Hahn B, Merrill J, Sam-maritano L, Lockshin M, Alarcon G, Manzi S, Belmont H, Sigler L, Dooley M, VonFeldt J, McCune W, Friedman A, Diamond B, Mackay M, Cronin M (2003) Estrogen/cyclic progesterone replacement is associated with an increased rate of mild/moderate but not severe flares in SLE patients in the SELENA trial (abstract). Arthritis Rheum 48:3659-660

24. Roubinian JR, Talal N, Greenspan JS, Goodman JR, Siiteri PK (1978) Effect of castration and sex hormone treatment on survival, anti-nucleic acid antibodies, and glomerulonephritis in NZB/NZW F1 mice. J Exp Med 147:1568-1583

25. Carlsten H, Tarkowski A, Holmdahl R, Nilsson LA (1990) Oestrogen is a potent disease accelerator in SLE-prone MRL lpr/lpr mice. Clin Exp Immunol 80:467-473

26. Carlsten H, Nilsson N, Jonsson R, Backman K, Holmdahl R, Tarkowski A (1992) Estrogen accelerates immune complex glomerulonephritis but ameliorates T cellmediated vasculitis and sialadenitis in autoimmune MRL lpr/lpr mice. Cell Immunol 144:190-202

27. Dhaher YY, Greenstein BD, Khamashta MA, Hughes GR (2001) Effects of oestra-diol and the oestrogen antagonist Ici 182,780 on the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) index and on serum levels of IgM and IgG in ovariectomised Balb/C and MRL/Mp-Lpr/Lpr mice, a model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Autoimmunity 33:237-243

28. Roubinian JR, Talal N, Greenspan JS, Goodman JR, Siiteri PK (1979) Delayed androgen treatment prolongs survival in murine lupus. J Clin Invest 63:902-911

29. Sthoeger ZM, Zinger H, Mozes E (2003) Beneficial effects of the anti-oestrogen tamoxifen on systemic lupus erythematosus of (NZBxNZW)Fl female mice are associated with specific reduction ofIgG3 autoantibodies. Ann Rheum Dis 62:341346

30. Auborn KJ, Qi M, Yan XJ, Teichberg S, Chen D, Madaio MP, Chiorazzi N (2003) Lifespan is prolonged in autoimmune-prone (NZB/NZW) F1 mice fed a diet supplemented with indole-3-carbinol. J Nutr 133:3610-3613

31. Allen SH, Sharp GC, Wang G, Conley C, Takeda Y, Conroy SE, Walker SE (1996) Prolactin levels and antinuclear antibody profiles in women tested for connective tissue disease. Lupus 5:30-37

32. Funauchi M, Ikoma S, Enomoto H, Sugiyama M, Ohno M, Hamada K, Kanamaru A (1998) Prolactin modulates the disease activity of systemic lupus erythematosus accompanied by prolactinoma. Clin Exp Rheumatol 16:479-482

33. McMurray R, Keisler D, Izui S, Walker SE (1994) Hyperprolactinemia in male NZB/NZW (B/W) F1 mice: accelerated autoimmune disease with normal circulating testosterone. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 71:338-343

34. McMurray R, Keisler D, Kanuckel K, Izui S, Walker SE (1991) Prolactin influences autoimmune disease activity in the female B/W mouse. J Immunol 147:3780-3787

35. Spatz L, Saenko V, Iliev A, Jones L, Geskin L, Diamond B (1997) Light chain usage in anti-double-stranded DNA B cell subsets: role in cell fate determination. J Exp Med 185:1317-1326

36. Bynoe MS, Spatz L, Diamond B (1999) Characterization of anti-DNA B cells that escape negative selection. Eur J Immunol 29:1304-1313

37. Kuo P, Bynoe MS, Wang C, Diamond B (1999) Bcl-2 leads to expression of anti-DNA B cells but no nephritis: a model for a clinical subset. Eur J Immunol 29:3168-3178

38. Grimaldi CM, Cleary J, Dagtas AS, Moussai D, Diamond B (2002) Estrogen alters thresholds for B cell apoptosis and activation. J Clin Invest 109:1625-1633

39. Peeva E, Michael D, Cleary J, Rice J, Chen X, Diamond B (2003) Prolactin modulates the naive B cell repertoire. J Clin Invest 111:275-283

40. Mor G, Sapi E, Abrahams VM, Rutherford T, Song J, Hao XY, Muzaffar S, Kohen F (2003) Interaction of the estrogen receptors with the Fas ligand promoter in human monocytes. J Immunol 170:114-122

41. Curran EM, Berghaus LJ, Vernetti NJ, Saporita AJ, Lubahn DB, Estes DM (2001) Natural killer cells express estrogen receptor-alpha and estrogen receptor-beta and can respond to estrogen via a non-estrogen receptor-alpha-mediated pathway. Cell Immunol 214:12-20

42. Tornwall J, Carey AB, Fox RI, Fox HS (1999) Estrogen in autoimmunity: expression of estrogen receptors in thymic and autoimmune T cells. J Gend Specif Med 2:33-40

43. Gruber CJ, Tschugguel W, Schneeberger C, Huber JC (2002) Production and actions of estrogens. N Engl J Med 346:340-352

44. Benten WP, Lieberherr M, Giese G, Wunderlich F (1998) Estradiol binding to cell surface raises cytosolic free calcium in T cells. FEBS Lett 422:349-353

45. Benten WP, Stephan C, Lieberherr M, Wunderlich F (2001) Estradiol signaling via sequestrable surface receptors. Endocrinology 142:1669-1677

46. Benten WP, Stephan C, Wunderlich F (2002) B cells express intracellular but not surface receptors for testosterone and estradiol. Steroids 67:647-654

47. Razandi M, Pedram A, Greene GL, Levin ER (1999) Cell membrane and nuclear estrogen receptors (ERs) originate from a single transcript: studies of ERalpha and ERbeta expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Mol Endocrinol 13:307-319

48. Revankar CM, Cimino DF, Sklar LA, Arterburn JB, Prossnitz ER (2005) A transmembrane intracellular estrogen receptor mediates rapid cell signaling. Science 307:1625-1630

49. Medina KL, Smithson G, Kincade PW (1993) Suppression of B lymphopoiesis duringnormal pregnancy. J Exp Med 178:1507-1515

50. Medina KL, Garrett KP, Thompson LF, Rossi MI, Payne KJ, Kincade PW (2001) Identification of very early lymphoid precursors in bone marrow and their regulation by estrogen. Nat Immunol 2:718-724

51. Rijhsinghani AG, Thompson K, Bhatia SK, Waldschmidt TJ (1996) Estrogen blocks early T cell development in the thymus. Am J Reprod Immunol 36:269-277

52. Erlandsson MC, Gomori E, Taube M, Carlsten H (2000) Effects of raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, on thymus, T cell reactivity, and inflammation in mice. Cell Immunol 205:103-109

53. Krishnan L, Guilbert LJ, Russell AS, Wegmann TG, Mosmann TR, Belosevic M (1996) Pregnancy impairs resistance of C57BL/6 mice to Leishmania major infection and causes decreased antigen-specific IFN-gamma response and increased production of T helper 2 cytokines. J Immunol 156:644-652

54. Fox HS, Bond BL, Parslow TG (1991) Estrogen regulates the IFN-gamma promoter. J Immunol 146:4362-4367

55. Maret A, Coudert JD, Garidou L, Foucras G, Gourdy P, Krust A, Dupont S, Chambon P, Druet P, Bayard F, Guery JC (2003) Estradiol enhances primary antigen-specific CD4 T cell responses and Th1 development in vivo. Essential role of estrogen receptor alpha expression in hematopoietic cells. Eur J Immunol 33:512-521

56. Carruba G, D'Agostino P, Miele M, Calabro M, Barbera C, Bella GD, Milano S, Ferlazzo V, Caruso R, Rosa ML, Cocciadiferro L, Campisi I, Castagnetta L, Cil-lari E (2003) Estrogen regulates cytokine production and apoptosis in PMA-differentiated, macrophage-like U937 cells. J Cell Biochem 90:187-196

57. Kramer PR, Kramer SF, Guan G (2004) 17beta-estradiol regulates cytokine release through modulation of CD16 expression in monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. Arthritis Rheum 50:1967-1975

58. Kanda N, Tamaki K (1999) Estrogen enhances immunoglobulin production by human PBMCs. J Allergy Clin Immunol 103:282-288

59. Evans MJ, MacLaughlin S, Marvin RD, Abdou NI (1997) Estrogen decreases in vitro apoptosis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from women with normal menstrual cycles and decreases TNF-alpha production in SLE but not in normal cultures. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 82:258-262

60. Andrews BS, Eisenberg RA, Theofilopoulos AN, Izui S, Wilson CB, McConahey PJ, Murphy ED, Roths JB, Dixon FJ (1978) Spontaneous murine lupus-like syndromes. Clinical and immunopathological manifestations in several strains. J Exp Med 148:1198-1215

61. Theofilopoulos AN, Dixon FJ (1985) Murine models of systemic lupus erythematosus. Adv Immunol 37:269-390

62. Cohen PL, Eisenberg RA (1991) Lpr and gld: single gene models of systemic autoimmunity and lymphoproliferative disease. Annu Rev Immunol 9:243-269

63. Carlsten H, Tarkowski A, Holmdahl R, Nilsson LA (1990) Oestrogen is a potent disease accelerator in SLE-prone MRL lpr/lpr mice. Clin Exp Immunol 80:467-473

64. Yu CC, Tsui HW, Ngan BY, Shulman MJ, Wu GE, Tsui FW (1996) B and T cells are not required for the viable motheaten phenotype. J Exp Med 183:371-380

65. Westhoff CM, Whittier A, Kathol S, McHugh J, Zajicek C, Shultz LD, Wylie DE (1997) DNA-binding antibodies from viable motheaten mutant mice: implications for B cell tolerance. J Immunol 159:3024-3033

66. Shultz LD, Coman DR, Bailey CL, Beamer WG, Sidman CL (1984) "Viable motheaten," anew allele at the motheaten locus. I. Pathology. Am J Pathol 116:179-192

67. Stoll ML, Gavalchin J (2000) Systemic lupus erythematosus-messages from experimental models. Rheumatology (Oxford) 39:18-27

68. Carlsten H, Nilsson N, Jonsson R, Backman K, Holmdahl R, Tarkowski A (1992) Estrogen accelerates immune complex glomerulonephritis but ameliorates T cellmediated vasculitis and sialadenitis in autoimmune MRL lpr/lpr mice. Cell Immunol 144:190-202

69. Peeva E, Venkatesh J, Michael D, Diamond B (2004) Prolactin as a modulator of B cell function: implications for SLE. Biomed Pharmacother 58:310-319

70. Yu-Lee LY (1997) Molecular actions of prolactin in the immune system. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 215:35-52

71. Clevenger CV, Kline JB (2001) Prolactin receptor signal transduction. Lupus 10:706-718

72. Kelly PA, Djiane J, Banville D, Ali S, Edery M, Rozakis M (1991) The growth hormone/prolactin receptor gene family. Oxf Surv Eukaryot Genes 7:29-50

73. Wu W, Coss D, Lorenson MY, Kuo CB, Xu X, Walker AM (2003) Different biological effects of unmodified prolactin and a molecular mimic of phosphorylated prolactin involve different signaling pathways. Biochemistry 42:7561-7570

74. Yang L, Kuo CB, Liu Y, Coss D, Xu X, Chen C, Oster-Granite ML, Walker AM (2001) Administration of unmodified prolactin (U-PRL) and a molecular mimic of phosphorylated prolactin (PP-PRL) during rat pregnancy provides evidence that the U-PRL:PP-PRL ratio is crucial to the normal development of pup tissues. J Endocrinol 168:227-238

75. Morales P, Carretero MV, Geronimo H, Copin SG, Gaspar ML, Marcos MA, Martin-Perez J.(1999) Influence of prolactin on the differentiation of mouse B-lymphoid precursors. Cell Growth Differ 10:583-590

76. Moreno J, Varas A, Vicente A, Zapata AG (1998) Role of prolactin in the recovered T-cell development of early partially decapitated chicken embryo. Dev Immunol 5:183-195

77. Carreno PC, Sacedon R, Jimenez E, Vicente A, Zapata AG (2005) Prolactin affects both survival and differentiation of T-cell progenitors. J Neuroimmunol 160:135-145

78. Steger RW, Chandrashekar V, Zhao W, Bartke A, Horseman ND (1998) Neuroendocrine and reproductive functions in male mice with targeted disruption of the prolactin gene. Endocrinology 139:3691-3695

79. Bouchard B, Ormandy CJ, Di Santo JP, Kelly PA (1999) Immune system development and function in prolactin receptor-deficient mice. J Immunol 163:576-182

80. Sandi C, Cambronero JC, Borrell J, Guaza C (1992) Mutually antagonistic effects of corticosterone and prolactin on rat lymphocyte proliferation. Neuroendocrinol-ogy 56:574-581

81. Krumenacker JS, Buckley DJ, Leff MA, McCormack JT, de Jong G, Gout PW, Reed JC, Miyashita T, Magnuson NS, Buckley AR (1998) Prolactin-regulated apoptosis of Nb2 lymphoma cells: pim-1, bcl-2, and bax expression. Endocrine 9:163-170

82. Cesario TC, Yousefi S, Carandang G, Sadati N, Le J, Vaziri N.(1994) Enhancedyields of gamma interferon in prolactin treated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 205:89-95

83. Vidaller A, Llorente L, Larrea F, Mendez JP, Alcocer-Varela J, Alarcon-Segovia D (1986) T-cell dysregulation in patients with hyperprolactinemia: effect of bromocriptine treatment. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 38:337-343

84. Jara LJ, Irigoyen L, Ortiz MJ, Zazueta B, Bravo G, Espinoza LR (1998) Prolactin and interleukin-6 in neuropsychiatric lupus erythematosus. Clin Rheumatol 17:110114

85. Gutierrez MA, Molina JF, Jara LJ, Garcia C, Gutierrez-Urena S, Cuellar ML, Ghar-avi A, Espinoza LR (1996) Prolactin-induced immunoglobulin and autoantibody production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from systemic lupus erythematosus and normal individuals. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 109:229-235

86. Jacobi AM, Rohde W, Volk HD, Dorner T, Burmester GR, Hiepe F (2001) Prolactin enhances the in vitro production of IgG in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus but not from healthy controls. Ann Rheum Dis 60:242-247

87. Ratkay LG, Weinberg J, Waterfield JD (2000) The effect of lactation in the post-partum arthritis of MRL-lpr/fasmice. Rheumatology (Oxford) 39:646-651

88. Walker SE (2001) Bromocriptine treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus 10:762-728

89. Monroe JG (2004) Ligand-independent tonic signaling in B-cell receptor function. Curr Opin Immunol 16:288-295

90. Wardemann H, Yurasov S, Schaefer A, Young JW, Meffre E, Nussenzweig MC (2003) Predominant autoantibody production by early human B cell precursors. Science 301:1374-1377

91. Nemazee DA, Burki K (1989) Clonal deletion of B lymphocytes in a transgenic mouse bearing anti-MHC class I antibody genes. Nature 337:562-566

92. Chen C, Nagy Z, Prak EL, Weigert M (1995) Immunoglobulin heavy chain gene replacement: a mechanism of receptor editing. Immunity 3:747-755

93. Fulcher DA, Basten A (1994) Reduced life span of anergic self-reactive B cells in a double-transgenic model. J Exp Med 179:125-134

94. Tiegs SL, Russell DM, Nemazee D (1993) Receptor editing in self-reactive bone marrow B cells. J Exp Med 177:1009-1020

95. Gay D, Saunders T, Camper S, Weigert M (1993) Receptor editing: an approach by autoreactive B cells to escape tolerance. J Exp Med 177:999-1008

96. Offen D, Spatz L, Escowitz H, Factor S, Diamond B (1992) Induction of tolerance to an IgG autoantibody. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:8332-8336

97. Hardy RR, Hayakawa K (1991) developmental switch in B lymphopoiesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88:11550-11554

98. Carsetti R, Kohler G, Lamers MC (1995) Transitional B cells are the target of negative selection in the B cell compartment. J Exp Med 181:2129-2140

99. Loder F, Mutschler B, Ray RJ, Paige CJ, Sideras P, Torres R, Lamers MC, Carsetti R (1999) B cell development in the spleen takes place in discrete steps and is determined by the quality of B cell receptor-derived signals. J Exp Med 190:75-89

100. Allman D, Lindsley RC, DeMuth W, Rudd K, Shinton SA, Hardy RR (2001) Resolution of three nonproliferative immature splenic B cell subsets reveals multiple selection points during peripheral B cell maturation. J Immunol 167:6834-6840

101. Su TT, Rawlings DJ (2002) Transitional B lymphocyte subsets operate as distinct checkpoints in murine splenic B cell development. J Immunol 168:2101-2110

102. Petro JB, Gerstein RM, Lowe J, Carter RS, Shinners N, Khan WN (2003) Transitional type 1 and 2 B lymphocyte subsets are differentially responsive to antigen receptor signaling. J Biol Chem 277:48009-48019

103. Hardy RR, Li YS, Allman D, Asano M, Gui M, Hayakawa K (2000) B-cell commitment, development and selection, Immunol Rev 175:23-32

104. Su TT, Guo B, Kawakami Y, Sommer K, Chae K, Humphries LA, Kato RM, Kang S, Patrone L, Wall R, Teitell M, Leitges M, Kawakami T, Rawlings DJ (2002) PKC-beta controls I kappa B kinase lipid raft recruitment and activation in response to BCR signaling. Nat Immunol 3:780-786

105. Martin F, Kearney JF (2000) Selection from newly formed to marginal zone B cells depends on the rate of clonal production, CD19, and btk. Immunity 12:39-49

106. Cariappa A, Tang M, Parng C, Nebelitskiy E, Carroll M, Georgopoulos K, Pillai S (2001) The follicular versus marginal zone B lymphocyte cell fate decision is regulated by Aiolos, Btk, and CD21. Immunity 14:603-615

107. Anzelon AN, Wu H, Rickert RC (2003) Pten inactivation alters peripheral B lymphocyte fate and reconstitutes CD19 function. Nat Immunol 4:287-294

108. McHeyzer-Williams LJ, McHeyzer-Williams MG (2005) Antigen-specific memory B cell development. Annu Rev Immunol 23:487-513

109. SongH,CernyJ (2003) Functional heterogeneity of marginal zone B cells revealed by their ability to generate both early antibody-forming cells and germinal centers with hypermutation and memory in response to a T-dependent antigen. J Exp Med 198:1923-1935

110. Ferguson AR, Youd ME, Corley RB (2004) Marginal zone B cells transport and deposit IgM-containing immune complexes onto follicular dendritic cells. Int Immunol 16:1411-1422

111. Iliev A, Spatz L, Ray S, Diamond B (1994) Lack of allelic exclusion permits autoreactive B cells to escape deletion. J Immunol 153:3551-3556

112. Bynoe MS, Grimaldi CM, Diamond B (2000) Estrogen up-regulates Bcl-2 and blocks tolerance induction of naive B cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:2703-2708

113. Grimaldi CM, Michael DJ, Diamond B (2001) Cutting edge: expansion and activation of a population of autoreactive marginal zone B cells in a model of estrogen-induced lupus. J Immunol 167:1886-1890

114. Hande S, Notidis E, Manser T (1998) Bcl-2 obstructs negative selection of autoreactive, hypermutated antibody V regions during memory B cell development. Immunity 8:189-198

115. Perillo B, Sasso A, Abbondanza C, Palumbo G (2000) 17beta-estradiol inhibits apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, inducing bcl-2 expression via two estrogen-responsive elements present in the coding sequence. Mol Cell Biol 20:2890-2901

116. Grimaldi CM, Hicks R, Diamond B (2005) B cell selection and susceptibility to autoimmunity. J Immunol 174:1775-1781

117. Peeva E, Grimaldi C, Spatz L, Diamond B (2002) Bromocriptine restores tolerance in estrogen-treated mice. J Clin Invest 106:1373-1379

118. Neidhart M (1997) Bromocriptine has little direct effect on murine lymphocytes, the immunomodulatory effect being mediated by the suppression of prolactin secretion. Biomed Pharmacother 151:118-125

119. Cornall RJ, Cyster JG, Hibbs ML, Dunn AR, Otipoby KL, Clark EA, Goodnow CC (1998) Polygenic autoimmune traits: Lyn, CD22, and SHP-1 are limiting elements of a biochemical pathway regulating BCR signaling and selection. Immunity 8:497-508

120. Nishimura H, Nose M, Hiai H, Minato N, Honjo T (1999) Development of lupuslike autoimmune diseases by disruption of the PD-1 gene encoding an ITIM motif-carrying immunoreceptor. Immunity 11:141-151

121. Bolland S, Ravetch JV (2000) Spontaneous autoimmune disease in Fc(gam-ma)RIIB-deficient mice results from strain-specific epistasis. Immunity 13:277-285

122. Johansson C, Castillejo-Lopez C, Johanneson B, Svenungsson E, Gunnarsson I, Frostegard J, Sturfelt G, Truedsson L, Lofstrom B, Alcocer-Varela J, Lundberg I, Gyllensten UB, Alarcon-Segovia D, Alarcon-Riquelme ME (2000) Association analysis with microsatellite and SNP markers does not support the involvement of BCL-2 in systemic lupus erythematosus in Mexican and Swedish patients and their families. Genes Immun 1:380-385

123. Cao H, Hegele RA (2002) Identification of polymorphisms in the human SHP1 gene. J Hum Genet 47:445-447

124. Lajaunias F, Ibnou-Zekri N, Fossati Jimack L, Chicheportiche Y, Parkhouse RM, Mary C, Reininger L, Brighouse G, Izui S (1999) Polymorphisms in the Cd22 gene of inbred mouse strains. Immunogenetics 49:991-995

125. Liu ZH, Cheng ZH, Gong RJ, Liu H, Liu D, Li LS (2002) Sex differences in estrogen receptor gene polymorphism and its association with lupus nephritis in Chinese. Nephron 90:174-180

126. Lee YJ, Shin KS, Kang SW, Lee CK, Yoo B, Cha HS, Koh EM, Yoon SJ, Lee J (2004) Association of the oestrogen receptor alpha gene polymorphisms with disease onset in systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis 63:1244-1249

127. Johansson M, Arlestig L, Moller B, Smedby T, Rantapaa-Dahlqvist S (2005) Estrogen receptor alpha gene polymorphisms in systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis 64:1611-1617

128. Stevens A, Ray D, Alansari A, Hajeer A, Thomson W, Donn R, Ollier WE, Worthington J, Davis JR (2001) Characterization of a prolactin gene polymorphism and its associations with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 44:2358-2366

129. Mellai M, Giordano M, D'Alfonso S, Marchini M, Scorza R, Giovanna Danieli M, Leone M, Ferro I, Liguori M, Trojano M, Ballerini C, Massacesi L, Cannoni S, Bomprezzi R, Momigliano-Richiardi P (2003) Prolactin and prolactin receptor gene polymorphisms in multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Hum Immunol 64:274-284

CTMI (2006) 305:89-104 © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Was this article helpful?

0 0
How To Bolster Your Immune System

How To Bolster Your Immune System

All Natural Immune Boosters Proven To Fight Infection, Disease And More. Discover A Natural, Safe Effective Way To Boost Your Immune System Using Ingredients From Your Kitchen Cupboard. The only common sense, no holds barred guide to hit the market today no gimmicks, no pills, just old fashioned common sense remedies to cure colds, influenza, viral infections and more.

Get My Free Audio Book


Post a comment