Where can we hope to learn more about secondary mechanisms that might provide a window for infection-dependent autoimmunity? Table 4 lists conditions where these might be expected to operate, and indeed in several cases have been found to do so.
Finally, it is well established that one way or another infection influences susceptibility to autoimmune disease. Two comprehensive reviews discuss
Table 4 Systems known or likely to involve downregulation
Autoimmunity driven by monoclonal T or B cells
Long-term transplant survival, particularly when incompatible only at minor antigens Models of fluctuating autoimmunity
Immunological genes associated with autoimmune disease
Collagen induced arthritis 
Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis [39, 83]
Optic neuritis 
Diabetes [33, 43]
Gastritis [1, 18]
Cardiac, mouse  human  Renal, human [56, 96]
EAE in SJL mice  Arthritis post-cell transfer  Arthritis induced by type IX cartilage  T1D 
the range of mechanisms that may underlie this association [7, 97]. To this discussion, we would add only that attractive as the hygiene hypothesis is to explain the association, it should not be accepted uncritically .
Was this article helpful?
Thank you for deciding to learn more about the disorder, Osteoarthritis. Inside these pages, you will learn what it is, who is most at risk for developing it, what causes it, and some treatment plans to help those that do have it feel better. While there is no definitive “cure” for Osteoarthritis, there are ways in which individuals can improve their quality of life and change the discomfort level to one that can be tolerated on a daily basis.