Cure Arthritis Naturally

Cure Arthritis Naturally

Get Instant Access

1. Klippel, J. H., Weyand, C. M., and Wortmann, R. L., 1997, Primer on the Rheumatic Diseases, 11th ed., Arthritis Foundation Press, Atlanta.

2. Schumacher, H. R., 2000, Chlamydia-associated arthritis, Isr. Med. Assoc. J. 2:532-535.

3. Granfors, K., Jalkanen, S., von Essen, R., Lahesmaa-Rantala, R., Isomaki, O., Pekola-Heino, K., Merilahti-Palo, R., Saario, R., Isomaki, H., and Toivanen, A., 1989, Yersinia antigen in synovial-fluid cells from patients with reactive arthritis, N. Engl. J. Med. 320: 216-221.

4. Kohler, L., Zeidler, H., and Hudson, A. P., 1998, Aetiologic agents in reactive arthritis: Their molecular biology and phagocyte-host interactions, Baillière's Clin. Rheumatol. 12:589-609.

5. Inman, R. D., Whittum-Hudson, J. A., Schumacher, H. R., and Hudson, A. P., 2000, Chlamydia-associated arthritis, Curr. Opin. Rheumatol. 12:254-262.

6. Gérard, H. C., Branigan, P. J., Schumacher, H. R., and Hudson, A. P., 1998, Synovial Chlamydia trachomatis in patients with reactive arthritis/Reiter's syndrome are viable but show aberrant gene expression, J. Rheumatol. 25:734-742.

7. Villareal, C., Whittum-Hudson, J. A., and Hudson, A. P., 2002, Persistent Chlamydiae and chronic arthritis, Arthritis Res. 4:5-9.

8. Gray, J., Marsh, P. J., and Walker, D. J., 1994, A search for bacterial DNA in RA synovial fluids using polymerase chain reaction, Br. J. Rheumatol. 33:997-999; See also Wilbrink et al., 1998, Arthritis Rheum. 41:535-543; Li et al., 1996, Arthritis Rheum. 39:950-958.

9. Gérard, H. C., Wang, Z., Wang, G. F., El-Gabalawy, H., Goldbach-Mansky, R., Li, Y., Majeed, W., Zhang, H., Ngai, N., Hudson, A. P., and Schumacher, H. R., 2001, Chromosomal DNA from a variety of bacterial species is present in synovial tissue in patients with various forms of arthritis, Arthritis Rheum. 44:1689-1697.

10. Zeidler, H., Werdier, D., Klauder, A., Brinkmann, S.,Viswat, M., Mones, M. L., Hulsemann, J. L., and Keck, E., 1987, Undifferentiated arthritis and spondyloarthropathy as a challenge for prospective follow-up, Clin. Rheumatol. 6(Suppl. 2):112—120.

11. Weinberger, H., Ropes, M., Kulka, J. P., and Bauer, W., 1962, Reiter's syndrome: Clinical and pathological observations, Medicine 41:35—91.

12. Schumacher, H. R., 1975, Synovial membrane and fluid morphological alterations in early rheumatoid arthritis: Microvascular injury and virus-like particles, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 256:39-64.

13. Schumacher, H. R., Bartista, B. B., Krauser, R. E., Mathur, A. K., and Gall, E. P., 1994, Histological appearance of the synovium in early rheumatoid arthritis, Sem. Arthritis Rheum. 23:3-10.

14. Norton, W. L., Lewis, D., and Ziff, M., 1966, Light and electron microscopic observation on the synovitis of Reiter's disease, Arthritis Rheum. 9:747-757.

15. Keat, A. C., 1986, Chlamydia trachomatis infection in human arthritis, in: Chlamydial Infections (D. Oriel Ridgway, G., Schachter, J., Taylor-Robinson, D., and Ward, M., eds.), Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 269-279.

16. Keat, A., Thomas, B., Dixey, J., Osborn, M., Sonnex, C., and Taylor-Robinson, D., 1987, Chlamydia trachomatis and reactive arthritis: The missing link, Lancet 1:72-74.

17. Schumacher, H. R., Magge, S., Cherian, P. V., Sleckman, J., Rothfuss, S., Clayburne, G., and Sieck, M., 1988, Light and electron microscopic studies on the synovial membrane in Reiter's syndrome. Immunocytochemical identification of chlamydial antigen in patients with early disease, Arthritis Rheum. 31:937-946.

18. Schachter, J., Marshall, J. B., Jones, J. P., Engleman, E. P., and Meyer, K. F., 1966, Isolation of Bedsoniae from the joint of patients with Reiter's syndrome, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 122:283-285.

19. Beatty, W. L., Morrison, R. P., and Byrne, G. I., 1995, Persistent Chlamydiae, from cell culture to a paradigm for chlamydial pathogenesis, Microbiol. Rev. 58:685-699.

20. Beatty, W. L., Byrne, G. I., and Morrison, R. P., 1993, Morphologic and antigenic characterization of interferon gamma mediated persistent Chlamydia trachomatis infection, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90:3998-4002.

21. Beatty, W. L., Morrison, R. P., and Byrne, G. I., 1995, Reactivation of persistent Chlamydia trachomatis infection in cell culture, Infect. Immun. 63:199-205.

22. Gérard, H. C., Köhler, L., Branigan, P.J., Zeidler, H., Schumacher, H. R., and Hudson, A.P., 1998, Viability and gene expression in Chlamydia trachomatis during persistent infection of cultured human monocytes, Med. Microbial. Immunol. 187:115-120.

23. Branigan, P. J., Gérard, H. C., Schumacher, H. R., and Hudson, A. P., 1996, Comparison of synovial tissue and fluid as sources for nucleic acids for detection of C. trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction, Arthritis Rheum. 39:1740-1746.

24. Gérard, H. C., Branigan, P. J., Schumacher, H. R., and Hudson, A. P., 1998, Synovial Chlamydia trachomatis in patients with reactive arthritis/Reiter's syndrome are viable but show aberrant gene expression, J. Rheumatol. 25:734-742.

25. Gérard, H. C., Freise, J., Rudy, D., Wang, Z., Roberts, G., Krauss-Opatz, B., Köhler, L., Zeidler, H., Schumacher, H. R., Whittum-Hudson, J. A., and Hudson, A. P., 2002, Chlamy-dia trachomatis genes whose products are related to energy metabolism are expressed differentially in active vs. persistent infection, Microb. Infect. 4:13-22.

26. Gérard, H. C., Krauße-Opatz, B., Rudy, D., Wang, Z., Rao, J. P., Zeidler, H., Schumacher, H. R., Whittum-Hudson, J. A., Köhler, L., and Hudson, A. P., 2001, Expression of Chlamydia trachomatis genes required for DNA synthesis and cell division in active vs. persistent infection, Mol. Microbiol. 41:731-741.

27. Beaudreuil, J., Hayem, G., Meyer, O., and Khan, M. F., 1995, Reactive arthritis ascribed to Chlamydia pneumoniae, Rev. Rheum. 3:222-224.

28. Braun, J., Laitko, S., Treharne, J., Eggens, U., Wu, P., Distler, A., and Sieper, J., 1994, Chlamydia pneumoniae—a new causative agent of reactive arthritis and undifferentiated oligoarthritis, Ann. Rheum. Dis. 53:100-105,

29. Cascina, A., Marone Bianco, A., Mangiarotti, P., Montecucco, C. M., and Meloni, F., 2002, Cutaneous vasculitis and reactive arthritis following respiratory infection due to Chlamydia pneumoniae: Report of a case, Clin. Exp. Rheumatol. 20:845-847.

30. Wilkinson, N. Z., Kingsley, G. H., Sieper, Braun, J., and Ward, M. E., 1996, Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis in the synovium of patients with a range of rheumatic diseases, in : Proceedings of the European Society for Chlamydia Research (A. Starry, ed.), Societa Editrice Esculapio, Bologna, p. 189.

31. Schumacher, H. R., Gérard, H. C., Arayssi, T. K., Pando, J. A., Branigan, P. J., Saaibi, D. L., and Hudson, A. P., 1999, Chlamydia pneumoniae is present in synovial tissue of arthritis patients with lower prevalence than that of C. trachomatis, Arthritis Rheum. 42:1889-1893.

32. Gérard, H. C., Schumacher, H. R., El-Gabalawy, H., Goldback-Mansky, R., and Hudson, A. P., 2000, Chlamydia pneumoniae infecting the human synovium are viable and metabol-ically active, Microb. Pathog. 29:17-24.

33. Byrne, G. I., Ouellette, S. P., Wang, Z., Rao, J. P., Lu, L., Beatty, W. L., and Hudson, A. P.,

2001, Chlamydia pneumoniae expresses genes required for DNA replication but not cytokinesis during persistent infection of HEp-2 cells, Infect. Immun. 69:5423-5429.

34. Balin, B. J., Gérard, H. C., Arking, E. J., Appelt, D. M., Branigan, P. J., Abrams, J. T., Whittum-Hudson J. A., and Hudson, A. P., 1998, Identification and localization of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the Alzheimer's brain, Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 187:23-42.

35. Gérard, H. C., Wang, G. F., Balin, B. J., Schumacher, H. R., and Hudson, A. P., 1999, Frequency of apolipoprotein E (APOE) allele types in patients with Chlamydia-associated arthritis and other arthritides, Microb. Pathog. 26:35-43.

36. Ward, M. E., 1999, Mechanisms of Chlamydia-induced disease, in: Chlamydia—Intracellular Biology, Pathogenesis, and Immunity (R. S. Stephens, ed.), ASM Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 171-210.

37. Mosmann, T. R., and Coffman, R. L., 1989, TH1 and TH2 cells: Different patterns of lymphokine secretion lead to different functional properties, Annu. Rev. Immunol. 7:145173.

38. Carter, L. L., and Dutton, R. W., 1996, Type 1 and Type 2: A fundamental dichotomy for all T-cell subsets, Curr. Opin. Immunol 8:336-342.

39. Kotake, S., Schumacher, H. R., Arayssi, T. K., Gérard, H. C., Branigan, P. J., Hudson, A. P., Yarboro, C. H., Klippel,.!. H., and Wilder, R. L., 1999, IFNy, IL-10, and IL-12 p40 gene expression in synovial tissues from patients with recent-onset Chlamydia-associated arthritis, Infect. Immun. 67:2682-2686.

40. Van Voorhis, W. C., Barrett, L. K., Cosgrove Sweeney, Y.T., Kuo, C. C., and Patton, D. L., 1996, Analysis of lymphocyte phenotype and cytokine activity in the inflammatory infiltrates of the upper genital tract of female macaques infected with Chlamydia trachomatis, J. Infect. Dis. 174:647-650.

41. Malinverni, R., 1996, The role of cytokines in chlamydial infections, Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 9:150-156.

42. Huang, J., DeGraves, F. J., Lenz, S. D., Gao, D., Feng, P., Schlapp, T., and Kaltenbach, B.,

2002, The quantity of nitric oxide released by macrophages regulates Chlamydia-induced disease, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99:3914-3919.

43. Whittum-Hudson, J. A., Taylor, H. R., Farazdaghi, M., and Prendergast, R. A., 1986, Im-munohistochemical study of the local inflammatory response to chlamydial ocular infection, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27:64-69.

44. Simon, A. K., Seipelt, E., Wu, P., Wenzel, B., Braun, J., and Sieper, J., 1993, Analysis of cytokine profiles in synovial T cell clones from chlamydial reactive arthritis patients: Predominance of the Th1 subset, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 94:122-126.

45. Gérard, H. C., Wang, Z., Whittum-Hudson, J. A., El-Gabalawy, H., Goldbach-Mansky, R., Bardin, T., Schumacher, H. R., and Hudson, A. P., 2002, Cytokine and chemokine mRNA produced in synovial tissue chronically infected with Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae, J. Rheumatol. 29:1827-1835.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Natural Arthritis Pain Remedies

Natural Arthritis Pain Remedies

It's time for a change. Finally A Way to Get Pain Relief for Your Arthritis Without Possibly Risking Your Health in the Process. You may not be aware of this, but taking prescription drugs to get relief for your Arthritis Pain is not the only solution. There are alternative pain relief treatments available.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment