Index

Cure Arthritis Naturally

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NOTE: Page numbers in bold face type refer to Figures or Tables.

Abscess, epidural evaluating, 159 formation, 65-66 Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) clinical presentation, 69 description, 68-69 imaging studies, 69 management, 69-70 Adhesions, lyses, 176 Adolescents and spondylolysis, 55-56 Aged patients. See Elderly patients. Aging fatty bone marrow infiltration, 30 herniated discs, 34 water loss and height, 7 Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), ruling out cervical spondylotic myelopathy, 42 Ankylosing hyperostosis. See Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) Ankylosing spondylitis, 79-82 Anterior spinal artery syndrome, 126-127 Arachnoid cysts, 76-77

Arachnoiditis, chronic adhesive (CAA), 139-140

Arterial system, spine, 125-126

Arthritis enteropathic, 83

rheumatoid. See Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

Basilar invagination, 88

Cancer. See Neoplastic diseases. Cardioverters and magnetic resonance imaging, 26 Care of patient, need for physician and radiologist cooperation, ix

Cauda equina syndrome described, 37-38 synovial cysts, 73 Cervical spine anatomy, 3-4 diameter, 3-4 nerves, 3, 3

postoperative evaluation, 161 Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), 41-42 Chamberlain line, 89 Chiari malformation, 135 Chordoma, 109-110 Chronic adhesive arachnoiditis, 139-140 Clark stations, 89 Clinical presentation acute transverse myelitis (ATM), 69 ankylosing spondylitis (AS), 80-81 anterior spinal artery syndrome, 126-127 arachnoid cysts, 77 cauda equina syndrome, 38 cervical spondylotic myelopathy, 42 chordoma, 110

chronic adhesive arachnoiditis (CAA), 139-140

coccygodynia, 143-144

degenerative disc disease, 30

ependymoma, 115

epidural lipomatosis, 51-52

hemangioma, vertebral, 110-111

herniated discs, 33-35

intramedullary tumors, 115

lumbar spinal stenosis, 42-43

malformations, vascular, 129, 131

meningioma, 113

multiple myeloma, 108

nerve sheath tumors, 115

osteoid osteoma, 112

osteomalacia (OM), 100

Clinical presentation (continued) osteoporosis, 93-94 Paget's disease, 119-120 Pott's disease, 67

pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis and discitis, 63-64 rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 85-86 sacral insufficiency fractures, 99 scoliosis, degenerative adult, 47-48 spinal epidural hematoma, 127 spondyloarthropathy, 79 spondylolisthesis, 59-60 spondylolysis, 56 synovial cysts, 73 syringomyelia, 136 tuberculous osteomyelitis, 67 vascular malformations, 129, 131 vertebral hemangioma, 110-111 Coccygodynia, 143-145 Coccyx and sacrum, 6

Cochlear implants and magnetic resonance imaging, 26 Computed tomography (CT) cervical spine evaluation, 154 contrast agents, 20 Hounsfield units (HU), 17 image variation, 18 image window, 18 introduction, 15 major uses, 19 postoperative, 152-154 scanning times, 17

single photon emission (SPECT), 56, 152 spondylolysis, 56, 57-58 traditional studies, 18-19 types, 15, 16 volumetric images, 19 versus X-ray imaging after surgery, 153 Contraindications, magnetic resonance imaging, 26, 161 Contrast agents computed tomography, 20 magnetic resonance imaging, 23-24 scar tissue diagnosis, 156 vertebral hemangioma, 112 Corkscrew deformity, 48 Cysts, spinal. See Spinal cysts

Diagnostic imaging. See Imaging, diagnostic. Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH), 49-50 Disc disease, degenerative anatomical changes, 30 cauda equina syndrome, 37 clinical presentation, 30 experimental therapies, 32 gas accumulation, 30 imaging studies, 30-31

intradiscal electrothermal treatment (IDET), 32 management, 31-32

nutrition, 29 pathogenesis, 29-30 postoperative imaging, 147-162 surgery, 32 Discography, 162 Discs degeneration, 29-32 herniated, 32-37 intervertebral, 6-7

intradiscal electrothermal treatment (IDET), 32 nutrition and, 7

Elderly patients acquired spinal stenosis, 41 degenerative adult scoliosis, 47-48 degenerative spondylolisthesis, 59-61 diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, 49-51 herniated discs, 34 lumbar spinal stenosis, 42-47 osteomalacia (OM), 100-101 osteoporosis, 93 Paget's disease, 119 pyogenic infections, 63 rheumatoid arthritis, 85 synovial cysts, 73 Enteropathic arthritis, 83 Enthesis, 79 Ependymoma, 115-116 Epidural lipomatosis (EL)

clinical presentation, 51-52 imaging studies, 52 management, 52-53 pathophysiology, 51 Epidural scarring, postoperative, 160 Exercise therapy osteoporosis, 97, 98 spinal stenosis, 46 spondylolisthesis, 61 spondylolysis, 58 tai chi exercises, 98 Extradural tumors, 103-104

Facet joints, orientation, 1 Fluoroscopy and spinal injections diagnostic, 166-170 materials and procedure notes, 165-166 overview, 165 therapeutic, 170-178 Foraminae, intervertebral, 1, 3, 3, 5, 6 Forestier disease. See Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) Fractures, sacral insufficiency, 99-100

Gait dysfunction, cervical spondylotic myelopathy, 42 Genetics and spondylolysis, 56 Grafts, autologous fat, 160

Hemangioma, vertebral, 110-112 Hematoma, spinal epidural, 127-128 Herniated discs aged patients, 34 cauda equina syndrome, 37-38 clinical presentation, 33-35 discovery, 32-33 imaging studies, 35-37 lumbar, 34 management, 37 motor changes, 35 pathophysiology, 33 schematic, 34 tests, 34, 34 thoracic, 35 Hounsfield units (HU), 17

Imaging, diagnostic aim, 9

computed tomography (CT), 15-20 myelography, 14-15, 16 X-ray, 9-14 Imaging studies acute transverse myelitis (ATM), 69 ankylosing spondylitis (AS), 81-82 anterior spinal artery syndrome, 127 arachnoid cysts, 77 cauda equina syndrome, 38 chordoma, 109-110

chronic adhesive arachnoiditis (CAA), 140

coccyogodynia, 144

degenerative disc disease, 30-31

diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH), 50

epidural lipomatosis (EL), 52

hemangioma, vertebral, 111-112

herniated discs, 35-37

intramedullary tumors, 115-116

lumbar spinal stenosis, 43-46

malformations, vascular, 129-130, 131, 132

meningioma, 113-114

multiple myeloma, 108-109

nerve sheath tumors, 114-115

neurofibroma, 115

nuclear medicine postoperative, 151-152 ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament

osteoid osteoma, 113 osteomalacia (OM), 101 osteoporosis, 94-96 Paget's disease, 120-121 perineural cyst, 75-76 postoperative spine, 147-162 Pott's disease, 67-68

pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis and discitis, 64-65 rheumatoid arthritis, 86-89 sacral insufficiency fractures, 99

spinal epidural hematoma, 27-28 spinal metastases, 104-107 spondylolisthesis, 60 spondylolysis, 56-58 synovial cysts, 73-74 syringomyelia, 136-137 tuberculous osteomyelitis, 67-68 vascular malformations, 129-130, 131, 132 vertebral hemangioma, 111-112 Implants, magnetic resonance imaging problems, 26 Infections, spinal, 63-70 Inflammatory diseases, chronic rheumatoid arthritis, 85-90 spondyloarthropathy, 79-83 Injections, diagnostic discogram and disc provocation, 170 intra-articular zygoapophyseal joint (ZJ) block,

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