Central Pain Syndrome Glossary

The following is a complete glossary of terms used in this sourcebook. The definitions are derived from official public sources including the National Institutes of Health [nih] and the European Union [eu]. After this glossary, we list a number of additional hardbound and electronic glossaries and dictionaries that you may wish to consult.

Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage. [nih]

Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter. Acetylcholine in vertebrates is the major transmitter at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system. It is generally not used as an administered drug because it is broken down very rapidly by cholinesterases, but it is useful in some ophthalmological applications. [nih]

Agonist: In anatomy, a prime mover. In pharmacology, a drug that has affinity for and stimulates physiologic activity at cell receptors normally stimulated by naturally occurring substances. [eu]

Analgesic: An agent that alleviates pain without causing loss of consciousness. [eu]

Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.

Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general anesthesia, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site. [nih]

Anticholinergic: An agent that blocks the parasympathetic nerves. Called also parasympatholytic. [eu]

Anxiety: The unpleasant emotional state consisting of psychophysiological responses to anticipation of unreal or imagined danger, ostensibly resulting from unrecognized intrapsychic conflict. Physiological concomitants include increased heart rate, altered respiration rate, sweating, trembling, weakness, and fatigue; psychological concomitants include feelings of impending danger, powerlessness, apprehension, and tension. [eu]

Autonomic: Self-controlling; functionally independent. [eu]

Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body. [nih]

Benign: Not malignant; not recurrent; favourable for recovery. [eu]

Benzodiazepines: A two-ring heterocyclic compound consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring. Permitted is any degree of hydrogenation, any substituents and any H-isomer. [nih]

Bursitis: Inflammation of a bursa, occasionally accompanied by a calcific deposit in the underlying supraspinatus tendon; the most common site is the subdeltoid bursa. [eu]

Butorphanol: A synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain. [nih]

Cannabis: The hemp plant Cannabis sativa. Products prepared from the dried flowering tops of the plant include marijuana, hashish, bhang, and ganja. [nih]

Carbamazepine: An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar. [nih]

Carbohydrate: An aldehyde or ketone derivative of a polyhydric alcohol, particularly of the pentahydric and hexahydric alcohols. They are so named because the hydrogen and oxygen are usually in the proportion to form water, (CH2O)n. The most important carbohydrates are the starches, sugars, celluloses, and gums. They are classified into mono-, di-, tri-, poly- and heterosaccharides. [eu]

Carcinoma: A malignant new growth made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. [eu]

Cardiac: Pertaining to the heart. [eu]

Cardiology: The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions. [nih]

Cardiopulmonary: Pertaining to the heart and lungs. [eu]

Cervical: Pertaining to the neck, or to the neck of any organ or structure. [eu]

Chemotherapy: The treatment of disease by means of chemicals that have a specific toxic effect upon the disease - producing microorganisms or that selectively destroy cancerous tissue. [eu]

Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is Vibrio cholerae. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated. [nih]

Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils. [nih]

Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage. [nih] Chronic: Persisting over a long period of time. [eu]

Chymopapain: A cysteine endopeptidase isolated from papaya latex. Preferential cleavage at glutamic and aspartic acid residues. EC 3.4.22.6. [nih]

Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake. [nih]

Codeine: An opioid analgesic related to morphine but with less potent analgesic properties and mild sedative effects. It also acts centrally to suppress cough. [nih]

Conduction: The transfer of sound waves, heat, nervous impulses, or electricity. [eu]

Coronary: Encircling in the manner of a crown; a term applied to vessels; nerves, ligaments, etc. The term usually denotes the arteries that supply the heart muscle and, by extension, a pathologic involvement of them. [eu]

Cortex: The outer layer of an organ or other body structure, as distinguished from the internal substance. [eu]

Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond. [nih]

Curative: Tending to overcome disease and promote recovery. [eu]

Cyst: Any closed cavity or sac; normal or abnormal, lined by epithelium, and especially one that contains a liquid or semisolid material. [eu]

Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner. [nih]

Dislocation: The displacement of any part, more especially of a bone. Called also luxation. [eu]

Distal: Remote; farther from any point of reference; opposed to proximal. In dentistry, used to designate a position on the dental arch farther from the median line of the jaw. [eu]

Dorsal: 1. Pertaining to the back or to any dorsum. 2. Denoting a position more toward the back surface than some other object of reference; same as posterior in human anatomy; superior in the anatomy of quadrupeds. [eu]

Dystrophy: Any disorder arising from defective or faulty nutrition, especially the muscular dystrophies. [eu]

Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic. [nih]

Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes. [nih]

Encephalopathy: Any degenerative disease of the brain. [eu]

Endocrinology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the metabolism, physiology, and disorders of the endocrine system. [nih]

Endogenous: Developing or originating within the organisms or arising from causes within the organism. [eu]

Endorphins: One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the pro-opiomelanocortin precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; opioid peptides is used for the broader group. [NIH]

Enkephalins: One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla. [nih]

Enzyme: A protein molecule that catalyses chemical reactions of other substances without itself being destroyed or altered upon completion of the reactions. Enzymes are classified according to the recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee of the International union of Biochemistry. Each enzyme is assigned a recommended name and an Enzyme Commission (EC) number. They are divided into six main groups; oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases, and ligases. [eu]

Epidural: Situated upon or outside the dura mater. [eu]

Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in alcoholic beverages. [nih]

Extracellular: Outside a cell or cells. [eu]

Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee. [nih]

Flexion: In gynaecology, a displacement of the uterus in which the organ is bent so far forward or backward that an acute angle forms between the fundus and the cervix. [eu]

Flumazenil: A potent benzodiazepine receptor antagonist. Since it reverses the sedative and other actions of benzodiazepines, it has been suggested as an antidote to benzodiazepine overdoses. [nih]

Ganglia: Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized connective tissue located outside the central nervous system. [nih]

Gastrointestinal: Pertaining to or communicating with the stomach and intestine, as a gastrointestinal fistula. [eu]

Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent. [nih]

Gout: Hereditary metabolic disorder characterized by recurrent acute arthritis, hyperuricemia and deposition of sodium urate in and around the joints, sometimes with formation of uric acid calculi. [nih]

Guanethidine: An antihypertensive agent that acts by inhibiting selectively transmission in post-ganglionic adrenergic nerves. It is believed to act mainly by preventing the release of norepinephrine at nerve endings and causes depletion of norepinephrine in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals as well as in tissues. [nih]

Hepatic: Pertaining to the liver. [eu]

Herpes: Any inflammatory skin disease caused by a herpesvirus and characterized by the formation of clusters of small vesicles. When used alone, the term may refer to herpes simplex or to herpes zoster. [eu]

Homeostasis: A tendency to stability in the normal body states (internal environment) of the organism. It is achieved by a system of control mechanisms activated by negative feedback; e.g. a high level of carbon dioxide in extracellular fluid triggers increased pulmonary ventilation, which in turn causes a decrease in carbon dioxide concentration. [eu]

Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various endocrine glands and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects. [nih]

Hypersensitivity: A state of altered reactivity in which the body reacts with an exaggerated immune response to a foreign substance. Hypersensitivity reactions are classified as immediate or delayed, types I and IV, respectively, in the Gell and Coombs classification (q.v.) of immune responses. [eu]

Ibuprofen: A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis. [nih]

Incubation: The development of an infectious disease from the entrance of the pathogen to the appearance of clinical symptoms. [eu]

Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. [nih]

Intermittent: Occurring at separated intervals; having periods of cessation of activity. [eu]

Intrathecal: Within a sheath. [eu]

Iodine: A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.

Ischemia: Deficiency of blood in a part, due to functional constriction or actual obstruction of a blood vessel. [eu]

Lesion: Any pathological or traumatic discontinuity of tissue or loss of function of a part. [eu]

Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of procaine but its duration of action is shorter than that of bupivacaine or prilocaine. [nih]

Ligaments: Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile. [nih]

Lithium: Lithium. An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight 6.94. Salts of lithium are used in treating manic-depressive disorders. [nih]

Lobe: A more or less well-defined portion of any organ, especially of the brain, lungs, and glands. Lobes are demarcated by fissures, sulci, connective tissue, and by their shape. [eu]

Lumbar: Pertaining to the loins, the part of the back between the thorax and the pelvis. [eu]

Lupus: A form of cutaneous tuberculosis. It is seen predominantly in women and typically involves the nasal, buccal, and conjunctival mucosa.

Mediate: Indirect; accomplished by the aid of an intervening medium. [eu]

Membrane: A thin layer of tissue which covers a surface, lines a cavity or divides a space or organ. [eu]

Mexiletine: Antiarrhythmic agent pharmacologically similar to lidocaine. It may have some anticonvulsant properties. [nih]

Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle. [nih]

Motility: The ability to move spontaneously. [eu]

Mysticism: A philosophy based upon spiritual intuition that is believed to transcend ordinary sensory experiences or understanding. [nih]

Nalbuphine: A narcotic used as a pain medication. It appears to be an agonist at kappa opioid receptors and an antagonist or partial agonist at mu opioid receptors. [nih]

Narcotic: 1. Pertaining to or producing narcosis. 2. An agent that produces insensibility or stupor, applied especially to the opioids, i.e. to any natural or synthetic drug that has morphine-like actions. [eu]

Neural: 1. Pertaining to a nerve or to the nerves. 2. Situated in the region of the spinal axis, as the neutral arch. [eu]

Neuralgia: Paroxysmal pain which extends along the course of one or more nerves. Many varieties of neuralgia are distinguished according to the part affected or to the cause, as brachial, facial, occipital, supraorbital, etc., or anaemic, diabetic, gouty, malarial, syphilitic, etc. [eu]

Neuroanatomy: Study of the anatomy of the nervous system as a specialty or discipline. [nih]

Neuroleptic: A term coined to refer to the effects on cognition and behaviour of antipsychotic drugs, which produce a state of apathy, lack of initiative, and limited range of emotion and in psychotic patients cause a reduction in confusion and agitation and normalization of psychomotor activity. [eu]

Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system. [nih]

Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the nervous system. [nih]

Neurotransmitter: Any of a group of substances that are released on excitation from the axon terminal of a presynaptic neuron of the central or peripheral nervous system and travel across the synaptic cleft to either excite or inhibit the target cell. Among the many substances that have the properties of a neurotransmitter are acetylcholine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, glycine, y-aminobutyrate, glutamic acid, substance P, enkephalins, endorphins, and serotonin. [eu]

Niacin: Water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. Required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. Has pellagra-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties. [nih]

Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke. [nih]

Nociceptors: Peripheral receptors for pain. Nociceptors include receptors which are sensitive to painful mechanical stimuli, extreme heat or cold, and chemical stimuli. All nociceptors are free nerve endings. [nih]

Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic. [nih]

Opiate: A remedy containing or derived from opium; also any drug that induces sleep. [eu]

Opium: The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - morphine, codeine, and papaverine - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic. [nih]

Orofacial: Of or relating to the mouth and face. [eu]

Osteoarthritis: Noninflammatory degenerative joint disease occurring chiefly in older persons, characterized by degeneration of the articular cartilage, hypertrophy of bone at the margins, and changes in the synovial membrane. It is accompanied by pain and stiffness, particularly after prolonged activity. [eu]

Oxytocin: A nonapeptide posterior pituitary hormone that causes uterine contractions and stimulates lactation. [nih]

Palliative: 1. Affording relief, but not cure. 2. An alleviating medicine. [eu] Pharyngitis: Inflammation of the pharynx. [eu]

Physostigmine: A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity. [nih]

Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol. [nih]

Posterior: Situated in back of, or in the back part of, or affecting the back or dorsal surface of the body. In lower animals, it refers to the caudal end of the body. [eu]

Postoperative: Occurring after a surgical operation. [eu]

Potassium: An element that is in the alkali group of metals. It has an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte and it plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the water-electrolyte balance. [nih]

Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from incidence, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time. [nih]

Prostaglandins: A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes. [nih]

Proteins: Polymers of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape and function of the protein.

Proteolytic: 1. Pertaining to, characterized by, or promoting proteolysis. 2. An enzyme that promotes proteolysis (= the splitting of proteins by hydrolysis of the peptide bonds with formation of smaller polypeptides). [eu]

Psychopharmacology: The study of the effects of drugs on mental and behavioral activity. [nih]

Psychotropic: Exerting an effect upon the mind; capable of modifying mental activity; usually applied to drugs that effect the mental state. [eu]

Pulse: The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an artery produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of blood from the left ventricle of the heart as it contracts. [nih]

Pyrazinamide: A pyrazine that is used therapeutically as an antitubercular agent. [nih]

Quackery: The fraudulent misrepresentation of the diagnosis and treatment of disease. [nih]

Radiology: A specialty concerned with the use of x-ray and other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. [nih]

Receptor: 1. A molecular structure within a cell or on the surface characterized by (1) selective binding of a specific substance and (2) a specific physiologic effect that accompanies the binding, e.g., cell-surface receptors for peptide hormones, neurotransmitters, antigens, complement fragments, and immunoglobulins and cytoplasmic receptors for steroid hormones. 2. A sensory nerve terminal that responds to stimuli of various kinds. [eu]

Reflex: 1. Reflected. 2. A reflected action or movement; the sum total of any particular involuntary activity. [eu]

Relaxant: 1. Lessening or reducing tension. 2. An agent that lessens tension.

Resuscitation: The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead; it includes such measures as artificial respiration and cardiac massage.

Rheumatoid: Resembling rheumatism. [eu]

Riboflavin: Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FMN and FAD. [nih]

Saline: Salty; of the nature of a salt; containing a salt or salts. [eu]

Sciatica: A syndrome characterized by pain radiating from the back into the buttock and into the lower extremity along its posterior or lateral aspect, and most commonly caused by prolapse of the intervertebral disk; the term is also used to refer to pain anywhere along the course of the sciatic nerve. [eu]

Sclerosis: An induration or hardening especially hardening of a part from inflammation and in diseases of the interstitial substance. The term is used chiefly for such a hardening of the nervous system due to hyperplasia of the connective tissue or to designate hardening of the blood vessels. [eu]

Secretion: 1. The process of elaborating a specific product as a result of the activity of a gland; this activity may range from separating a specific substance of the blood to the elaboration of a new chemical substance. 2. Any substance produced by secretion. [eu]

Sedative: 1. Allaying activity and excitement. 2. An agent that allays excitement. [eu]

Selenium: An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of glutathione peroxidase. [nih]

Spasticity: A state of hypertonicity, or increase over the normal tone of a muscle, with heightened deep tendon reflexes. [eu]

Spectrum: A charted band of wavelengths of electromagnetic vibrations obtained by refraction and diffraction. By extension, a measurable range of activity, such as the range of bacteria affected by an antibiotic (antibacterial s.) or the complete range of manifestations of a disease. [eu] Spondylitis: Inflammation of the vertebrae. [eu]

Spondylolisthesis: Forward displacement of one vertebra over another. [nih]

Stabilization: The creation of a stable state. [eu]

Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of a duct or canal. [eu]

Steroid: A group name for lipids that contain a hydrogenated cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene ring system. Some of the substances included in this group are progesterone, adrenocortical hormones, the gonadal hormones, cardiac aglycones, bile acids, sterols (such as cholesterol), toad poisons, saponins, and some of the carcinogenic hydrocarbons. [eu]

Stimulant: 1. Producing stimulation; especially producing stimulation by causing tension on muscle fibre through the nervous tissue. 2. An agent or remedy that produces stimulation. [eu]

Sumatriptan: A serotonin agonist that acts selectively at 5HT1 receptors. It is used in the treatment of migraines. [nih]

Sympathectomy: The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes. [nih]

Tachykinins: A family of biologically active peptides sharing a common conserved C-terminal sequence, -Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, where X is either an aromatic or a branched aliphatic amino acid. Members of this family have been found in mammals, amphibians, and mollusks. Tachykinins have diverse pharmacological actions in the central nervous system and the cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems, as well as in glandular tissues. This diversity of activity is due to the existence of three or more subtypes of tachykinin receptors. [nih]

Tenosynovitis: Inflammation of a tendon sheath. [eu]

Thalamus: Either of two large, ovoid masses, consisting chiefly of grey substance, situated one on each side of and forming part of the lateral wall of the third ventricle. It is divided into two major parts : dorsal and ventral, each of which contains many nuclei. [eu]

Thermal: Pertaining to or characterized by heat. [eu]

Thermoregulation: Heat regulation. [eu]

Thoracic: Pertaining to or affecting the chest. [eu]

Thyroxine: An amino acid of the thyroid gland which exerts a stimulating effect on thyroid metabolism. [nih]

Tolerance: 1. The ability to endure unusually large doses of a drug or toxin. 2. Acquired drug tolerance; a decreasing response to repeated constant doses of a drug or the need for increasing doses to maintain a constant response.

Tomography: The recording of internal body images at a predetermined plane by means of the tomograph; called also body section roentgenography.

Toxic: Pertaining to, due to, or of the nature of a poison or toxin; manifesting the symptoms of severe infection. [eu]

Toxicity: The quality of being poisonous, especially the degree of virulence of a toxic microbe or of a poison. [EU]

Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and pharmacologic action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations. [nih]

Transcutaneous: Transdermal. [EU]

Transplantation: The grafting of tissues taken from the patient's own body or from another. [EU]

Trophic: Of or pertaining to nutrition. [eu]

Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of Mycobacterium. [nih]

Vascular: Pertaining to blood vessels or indicative of a copious blood supply. [EU]

Vasculitis: Inflammation of a vessel, angiitis. [EU]

Ventral: 1. Pertaining to the belly or to any venter. 2. Denoting a position more toward the belly surface than some other object of reference; same as anterior in human anatomy. [EU]

Withdrawal: 1. A pathological retreat from interpersonal contact and social involvement, as may occur in schizophrenia, depression, or schizoid avoidant and schizotypal personality disorders. 2. (DSM III-R) A substance-specific organic brain syndrome that follows the cessation of use or reduction in intake of a psychoactive substance that had been regularly used to induce a state of intoxication. [EU]

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