16. Give two ways in which genital herpes simplex due to HSV-1 differs from that of HSV-2.
17. What do the letters AIDS stand for? What is the relationship between AIDS and HIV disease?
18. What, if any, effect does laser removal of genital warts have on a genital HPV infection?
19. What is the reservoir of Trichomonas vaginalis?
20. Why is the vaginal discharge in trichomoniasis often frothy? Multiple Choice
1. All of the following are true of bacterial cystitis, except
A. almost one-third of all women will have it at some time during their life.
B. catheterization of the bladder markedly increases the risk of contracting the disease.
C. individuals who have a bladder catheter in place indefinitely risk bladder infections with multiple species of intestinal bacteria at the same time.
D. bladder infections occur as often in men as they do in women.
E. bladder infections can be asymptomatic.
2. Choose the one correct statement about leptospirosis.
A. Humans are the only reservoir.
B. Most infections produce severe symptoms.
C. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route.
D. It can lead to unnecessary abdominal surgery.
E. Effective vaccine is generally available for preventing human disease.
662 Chapter 25 Genitourinary Infections
3. Which one of the following statements about bacterial vaginosis is false?
A. It is the most common vaginal disease in women of child-bearing age.
B. In pregnant women it is associated with a sevenfold increased risk of obstetrical complications.
C. Inflammation of the vagina is a constant feature of the disease.
D. The vaginal flora shows a marked decrease in lactobacilli and a marked increase in anaerobic bacteria.
E. The cause is unknown.
4. Pick the one false statement about vulvovaginal candidiasis.
A. It often involves the external genitalia.
B. It is readily transmitted by sexual intercourse.
C. It is caused by a yeast present among the normal vaginal flora in about one-third of healthy women.
D. It is associated with prolonged antibiotic use.
E. It involves increased risk late in pregnancy.
5. All of the following statements about staphylococcal toxic shock are true, except
A. it can quickly lead to kidney failure.
B. the causative organism usually does not enter the bloodstream.
C. it occurs only in vaginal tampon users.
D. almost one-third of victims of the disease will suffer a recurrence sometime after recovery.
E. person-to-person spread does not occur.
6. Which of the following statements about gonorrhea is false?
A. The incubation period is only a few days.
B. Disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI) is almost invariably preceded by prominant urogenital symptoms.
C. DGI can result in arthritis of the knee.
D. Phase variation helps the causative organism evade the immune response.
E. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is common in untreated women.
7. Which one of these statements about chlamydial genital infections is false?
A. The incubation period is usually shorter than in gonorrhea.
B. Infected cells develop inclusion bodies.
C. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) can be complicated by infection of the surface of the liver.
D. Tissue damage largely results from cell-mediated immunity.
E. Fallopian tube damage can occur in the absence of symptoms.
8. Which symptom is least likely to occur as a result of tertiary syphilis?
B. White patches on mucous membranes
C. Emotional instability
9. Each year, worldwide, approximately how many people become infected with the AIDS-causing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)?
D. 5 million E. 10 million
10. All of the following are true of "trich" (trichomoniasis), except
A. it can cause burning pain on urination and painful testes in men.
B. it occurs worldwide.
C. asymptomatic carriers are rare.
D. transmission can be prevented by proper use of condoms.
E. individuals with multiple sex partners are at high risk of contracting the disease.
1. A medical student, working in the hospital late at night, noticed that the laboratory had reported staphylococci growing in a urine culture from one of his pregnant patients. Remembering that staphylococci produce toxins, he became alarmed and phoned the attending physician, waking her from sleep at 1:00 A.M. Is the medical student a hero, or should he be asked to repeat Microbiology?
2. Religious restrictions of a small North African community are preventing a World Health Organization project from reducing the incidence of gonorrhea. The community will not permit the testing of females for the disease. They can be treated, however, if they show outward evidence of the disease. Only males are allowed to participate fully in the project, with testing for the disease and treatment. The village elders argue that eradicating the disease from males would eventually remove it from the population. What would be the impact of these restrictions on the success of the project?
3. Former president Ronald Reagan once commented at a press conference that the best way to combat the spread of AIDS in the United States was to prohibit everyone from having sexual contact for 5 years. What would be the success of such a program if it were possible to carry it out?
1. The middle curve of figure 25.6 shows the occurrence of staphylococcal toxic shock in menstruating women from 1979 to 1996. What aspect of these data argue that high absorbency tampons were not the only cause of toxic shock syndrome associated with menstruation?
2. In early attempts to identify and isolate the cause of syphilis, various bacteria in the discharge from syphilitic lesions in experimental animals were isolated in pure culture. None of them, however, would cause the disease when used in attempts to infect healthy animals. Why was it considered a critical step to have the cultivated bacteria reproduce the disease in the healthy animals?
3. Vaginal yeast infections do not spread person to person, generally not even by sexual intercourse. What does this suggest about the cause of vaginal yeast infections?
4. Discuss the implications of sexually transmitted diseases for the unborn and newborn.
Nester-Anderson-Roberts: I IV. Infectious Diseases I 26. Nervous System I I © The McGraw-Hill
Microbiology, A Human Infections Companies, 2003
Perspective, Fourth Edition
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