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Cure Arthritis Naturally

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ABCs 91, 97, 121, 426 Abdominal hernias 276, 512 Abdominal injuries 98-101, 361 computed tomography 99 laparoscopy 99 laparotomy 99-100 management 100-1 peritoneal lavage 99 ultrasound 99 Abdominal mass gastrointestinal system 510 genital system 510 imaging, laparoscopy 242 liver, spleen, pancreas 510 solid tumours 510 urinary system 510 see also Cysts Abdominal pain acute conditions 510 ectopic pregnancy 390 endometriosis 390 infants and children acute non-specific 510 medical conditions 509-10 surgical conditions 509 ovarian cysts 390 Abdominal wall conjoint tendon 270 defects, infants 510-11 external anatomy, surface markings 267-8

external oblique aponeurosis 269-70 fascia transversalis, the space of Bogros 270

peritoneum 270-1 subcutaneous layer 268 superficial nerves 268-9 Abdominal wounds closure 76 dehiscence 83-4 Abortion, ethics 185, 186 Abscesses anorectal 253-4, 260 breast 330 Brodie's 471 drainage 86-7 intracerebral 439 lung 363

peritonsillar 398, 412 subdural, epilepsy association 439

Acanthamoebic keratitis 394

contact lens wear 394 Achalasia 234, 237, 367

oesophagus 367 Achilles tendon rupture 461 Acidemia 131 Acinic cell carcinoma 413 Acoustic neuroma 412, 433 Acquired immune deficiency syndrome 220-2

Acromegaly, growth hormone (GH) 435, 436

ACTH and cortisol 107-8 Actinic keratoses 403 Actinomycosis 412

Activated partial thromboplastin time 210

Acute abdomen 390, 509-10 Acute lung injury and ARDS 139-41 Acute lung injury (ALI) 139, 140 Addisonian crisis, adrenal suppression 9, 11

Adenocarcinoma 309, 364 Barrett's mucosa 368 bladder 385 kidney 381 prostate gland 387

skeletal radionuclide and CT scans 365 Adenoid cystic carcinoma 407, 413 Adenoids 205 Adenoma ACTH 435

hypersecretory, pituitary gland compression 436 Adenovirus, viral conjunctivitis 393 Adhesion molecules 62, 110, 162, 341 Adhesive strips 76 Adjuvant therapy 246-7, 258 Adnexa oculi, bacterial keratitis 393 Adrenal glands disorders 315-17 Adrenal glands, anatomy and physiology 313-14

Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital 317 Adrenal masses 317 cysts 317

Adrenal suppression, steroid-induced 11 Adrenaline, action 314-15 Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) 107, 313, 314, 435, 436 congenital adrenal hyperplasia 317 pituitary gland 320

secretion in trauma 107 Adult respiratory distress syndrome

(ARDS) 139-41 Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) system 90-1 diagnostic peritoneal lavage 99 Aetiology exertion and herniation 272 Age, preoperative assessment 2-3 Age of dissection 265 Agglutination reaction 213 AIDS see HIV infection and AIDS Airway artificial see Intubation laryngeal mask 24, 133 oropharyngeal aperture, classification 20

preanaesthesia assessment 17-18 trauma care 90-1 see also Ventilation Airway obstruction early hypoxaemia 30-1 following thoracic surgery 354, 361 Alcohol, alcoholism anaesthesia risks 10 carcinogenesis 155 Aldosterone, secretion 314 Alfentanil, characteristics 23, 27, 35 Algorithms asystole 122 nutritional support 50 pulseless ventricular tachycardia 122 ventricular fibrillation 122 Allen test 116

Alpha-adrenergic blocking agents 386 Alveolar hypoventilation, early hypoxaemia 30 Amine precursor uptake decarboxylase

(APUD) cells 319, 320 Amino acids, metabolism after trauma 108

Aminoglutethimide 315 Aminoglycosides, treatment of sepsis 68 Amnesia post-traumatic (PTA) 418, 428 retrograde 418 Amputation 291-2, 458-60 chronic osteomyelitis 471 classification 458-9 complications 460 congenital anomalies 459 haematoma formation 460

Amputation (Contd) indications 458-9 joint contracture 460 neural deficits 459 neuroma formation 460 peripheral vascular disease 458 post-traumatic 458-9 postoperative infection 460 psychological assessment 460 stump necrosis 460 stump osteomyelitis 460 surgical considerations 459-60 tumours 405 Amrinone 119

Amylase, serum, abdominal injuries 100,101 Anaemia aplastic anaemia 214 autoimmune haemolytic 222 implications for surgery 214 preoperative assessment 9 Anaesthesia 16 ASA classification of illness 1, 14, 20 assessment 17-21 examination 19-20 risk stratification 20 awareness 17 complications 16-18 definitions 16 emergencies cardiac arrest 34 cardiorespiratory collapse 34 failure to intubate 33-4 rapid sequence induction 33 induction 23-4

inhalational/intravenous 23 local agents 34-5

toxicity 34-5 local anaesthesia technique 275-6 maintenance, inhalational/intravenous

24-5 monitoring 29-30 premedication 21-2 preoperative assessment 1-3 concurrent drugs 11-13 lifestyle risks 10-11 previous, history 17-18 prophylaxis of thromboembolic disease 13-14 recovery 30-3 stages 16-17 tourniquets 37 ventilation 37-8

see also Local; Regional anaesthesia Anaesthesia emergency 33-4 Anaesthetic agents inhalational agents 25-6 interactions with concurrent drugs 18-19

intravenous anaesthetic agents 26-7 local agents 34-5, 44 neuromuscular blocking drugs 27-8 pharmacology 25-8 regional agents 35-7 Anal and perianal disorders anorectal abscesses 254

anorectal anomaly 504-5 anorectal manometry 250 fissure 260-1 injury 101 Anal cancer 260 Analgesia 16, 25, 27 Anaphylaxis, anaesthetic agents 17 Anastomosis gastrointestinal 84, 88 leaks 84 principles 87-8 vascular 84, 88 Anatomy of biliary system 231 duodenum 231 hepatic system 231 oesophagus 230-1 pancreas 231 portal venous system 231 stomach 230 Anderson-Hynes dismembered pyeloplasty 384 Androgens, secretion 313-14 Aneuploidy 172 Aneurysms 279, 287, 296 anastomotic 298 degenerative 287, 295 intracranial 436, 437 Angina grading 3 Ludwig's 412

preoperative assessment 3 Angiography 425

central nervous system investigations 415

digital subtraction (DSA) 425, 437, 438 magnetic resonance (MRA) 289 see also Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP)

Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia 412 Angioplasty 290, 291, 293 Angiosarcoma 405-6 Angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitors action 114

interactions with anaesthetic agents 19 Animal models, ethics 187 Ankle and brachial pressure index (ABPI) 288

Ankle disorders 465-6

avascular necrosis of the talus 448 osteoarthritis 466

osteochondritis dissecans of the talus 465

recurrent lateral ligament instability 465 Ankle fractures 446 Ankylosing spondylitis 451, 452 Anorectal see Anal and perianal disorders Anorectal conditions anal fissure 260-1 fistula-in-ano 260 haemorrhoids 261 prolapse 261 Anorectal disorder 262-3 anal incontinence 262-3

constipation 262 Anorectal manometry 506 Antibiotics ICU 144

prophylactic 64-5 treatment of sepsis 67 Antibodies classes 212-13 cold 222

molecular structure 212 receptors 212 warm 222 Anticholinergics, characteristics 24 Anticoagulants interactions with anaesthetic agents 19

prophylaxis of thromboembolic disease 12 Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) 417, 435 Antigen matching 22B Antigens 212

prostate-specific antigen 172, 376 Antihypertensives, kidney disease 374 Antiinflammatory mediators 59 Antiplatelet agents, prophylaxis of thromboembolic disease 13 Antisense oligonucleotides 150, 177 Aorta intra-aortic balloon pump 120 transection 9B Aortic aneurysms 296, 29B Aortic rupture, thoracic trauma 361 Apache II scoring system, ICU 147 Aplastic anaemia 214 Apoptosis 153 Appendicitis, acute diagnosis 510 management 510 Appendix acute appendicitis 276 carcinoid tumours 319-20 Appendix epididymis torsion 516 Aprotinin 43B

APUD cells, multiple endocrine neoplasia 320

Arrhythmias 32, 122, 360 Arterial anastomosis B7-B Arterial anatomy and physiology 2B6-7 Arterial blood gases normal values 131 and pH 41, 131 pulse oximetry 29, 131 Arterial bypass 291, 293 Arterial diameter 2BB Arterial disease 2B6

abdominal aortic aneurysms 296 aneurysms 2B7 arterial trauma 297 collateral circulation 2B6 degenerative aneurysmal disease 295 diabetic foot 296-7 epidemiology, clinical features and management 2B7-B intermittent claudication 292 intracranial 436-B investigation 2BB-9 angiography 2B9

ankle/brachial pressure index (ABPI)

288,301 B-mode ultrasound 288 computed tomography angiography 289

Duplex ultrasonography 288, 289 exercise testing 288 magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) 289 lower limb 298-9 management complications of surgery 297-8 pathology 287 surgical techniques 289-92 mesenteric 294 pathophysiology 298-9 surgery 286 Arterial endarterectomy 291, 293, 295 Arterial grafts 290-1 Arterial injuries 103, 297 Arterial pathology 287 see also Arterial disease

Arterial pressure, mean 40, 424 Arterial thrombosis 219 Arteriovenous malformations (AVM) 252,

253, 437 Arthritis 451-2

ankylosing spondylitis 451 avascular necrosis 452 classification 451 degenerative 451 gout and pseudo-gout 451 haemophilia 452 postseptic 451 post-traumatic 451 septic 471-3 clinical features 471 investigations 472 management 472-3 tuberculosis 451 see also Rheumatoid arthritis Arthrodesis ankle 466-7 hallux rigidus 467 hallux valgus 467-9 rheumatoid arthritis 466-7 Arthropathy cuff tear 475

inflammatory bowel disease association 452 Arthroplasty hallux rigidus 467 hallux valgus 467-9 Keller's 468

rheumatoid arthritis 466-7 Asbestos exposure, malignant mesothelioma 365 Aspergillus sp., fungal keratitis 393 Aspiration, prevention 24 Aspirin, interactions with anaesthetic agents 19 Asthma preoperative assessment 6 URTIs 6 Astrocytomas juvenile 434 spinal cord 434

Asystole 122

Ataxia-telangiectasia gene 175 Atelectasis, postoperative 48 Atheroma 292

Atherosclerosis, peripheral vascular disease 458 Atherosclerosis, occlusion disease 292-5 Atracurium, characteristics 28 Atresia biliary atresia 513 classification 503 distal ileal 503 duodenal 502-3 jejunoileal 503 oesophageal 367, 497-9 proximal small bowel 503 pyloric 501 Atrial fibrillation, postoperative 47 Atropine, characteristics 22 Audit 191-2

Auditory cranial nerve 419-20 Autoantibodies

Graves' disease 222-3 idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura 222

myasthenia gravis 223 systemic lupus erythematosus 223 Auto-immune diseases 222-3 Autonomic nervous system 422 Autonomy 185 Avascular necrosis 446, 448 complications, 492 osteoarthritis 465 talus, 466 Awareness during anaesthesia 17 Axilla, anatomy and physiology 324 Axonotmesis, bone injury 102

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Arthritis Relief Now

Arthritis Relief Now

When you hear the word arthritis, images of painful hands and joints comes into play. Few people fully understand arthritis and this guide is dedicated to anyone suffering with this chronic condition and wants relief now.

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