Osteoarthritis of the ankle joint

This may rarely occur as a primary disorder however, degenerative arthritis of the ankle joint is more commonly secondary to recurrent episodes of trauma from lateral ligament instability or from the sequelae of intra-articular fractures involving the ankle joint. It may also occur as a secondary phenomenon to avascular necrosis of the talar dome secondary to talar neck fractures. The long-term outcome of septic arthritis of the ankle joint which damages the articular cartilage may be...

Transient synovitis of the hip

This is the commonest cause of irritable hip in the paediatric age group. It is characterized by hip pain and refusal to weight bear in a child who may be otherwise systematically well. The haematological and biochemical parameters are generally normal. Plain X-rays may reveal widening of the joint space due to an effusion or they may be normal. The child is generally apyrexial, although there may have been recent history of a concomitant viral infection. The important differential diagnosis is...

Arthritis

A simple pathological classification of arthritis is inflammatory rheumatoid arthritis (Fig. 22.10), ankylos-ing spondylitis degenerative osteoarthritis infective tuberculosis, postseptic arthritis (Fig. 22.11) post-traumatic an arthropathy may be secondary to trauma causing premature degenerative changes within the joint because of loss of bone stock, soft-tissue support or alignment idiopathic avascular necrosis (Fig. 22.12) metabolic gout and pseudo-gout secondary to inflammation resulting...