Albanes D et al. Effects of supplemental alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene on colorectal cancer: results from a controlled trial (Finland). Cancer Causes Control 11(3) (2000): 197-205.
Badiou S et al. Vitamin E supplementation increases LDL resistance to ex vivo oxidation in hemodialysis patients. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 73(4) (2003): 290-6.
Bartels M et al. Pilot study on the effect of parenteral vitamin E on ischemia and re perfusion induced liver injury: a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Nutr 23(6) (2004): 1360-70.
Baumann LS, Spencer J. The effects of topical vitamin E on the cosmetic appearance of scars. Dermatol Surg 25(4) (1999): 311-15.
Bhardwaj A et al. Status of vitamin E and reduced glutathione in semen of Oligozoospermie and azoospermic patients. Asian J Androl 2(3) (2000): 225-8.
Blankenhorn G. Clinical effectiveness of Spondyvit (vitamin E) in activated arthroses. A multicenter placebo-controlled double-blind study. Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb 124(3) (1986): 340-3.
Blot WJ et al. The Linxian trials: mortality rates by vitamin-mineral intervention group. Am J Clin Nutr 62(6 Suppl) (1995): 1424-6S.
Bolle P et al. The controversial efficacy of vitamin E for human male infertility. Contraception 65(4) (2002): 313-15.
Bonner LT, Peskind ER. Pharmacologic treatments of dementia. Med Clin North Am 86(3) (2002): 657-74.
Boshtam M et al. Vitamin E can reduce blood pressure in mild hypertensives. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 72(5) (2002): 309-14.
Brand C et al. Vitamin E is ineffective for symptomatic relief of knee osteoarthritis: a six month double blind, randomised, placebo controlled study. Ann Rheum Dis 60(10) (2001): 946-9.
Brockes C et al. Vitamin E prevents extensive lipid peroxidation in patients with hypertension. Br J Biomed Sei 60(1) (2003): 5-8.
Chen H et al. Mixed tocopherol preparation is superior to alpha-tocopherol alone against hypoxia-reoxygenation injury. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 291(2) (2002): 349-53.
Cherubini A et al. Vitamin E levels, cognitive impairment and dementia in older persons: the InCHIANTI study. Neurobiol Aging 26(7) (2005): 987-94.
Clarke R, Armitage J. Antioxidant vitamins and risk of cardiovascular disease. Review of large-scale randomised trials. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 16(5) (2002): 411-15.
Collins et al. PoleStriding exercise and vitamin E for management of peripheral vascular disease. Med Sei Sports Exerc 35(3) (2003): 384-93.
Coon JT, Ernst E. Complementary and alternative therapies in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a systematic review. J Hepatol 40(3) (2004): 491-500.
Cristol JP et al. Erythropoietin and oxidative stress in haemodialysis: beneficial effects of vitamin E supplementation. Nephrol Dial Transplant 12(11) (1997): 2312-17.
Darr D et al. Effectiveness of antioxidants (vitamin C and E) with and without sunscreens as topical photoprotectants. Acta Derm Venereol 76(4) (1996): 264-8.
de Gaetano G. Low-dose aspirin and vitamin E in people at cardiovascular risk: a randomised trial in general practice: Collaborative Group of the Primary Prevention Project. Lancet 357(9250) (2001): 89-95.
De Vita V (eds). Cancer: Principles and Practice in Oncology, 7th edn. Lipincott Williams and Wilkins. Online version available at: gateway.ut.ovid.com/gw2/ovidweb.cgi (accessed 12-06-06).
de Waart FG et al. Effect of 3 months vitamin E supplementation on indices of the cellular and humoral immune response in elderly subjects. Br J Nutr 78(5) (1997): 761-74.
DeMaio SJ et al. Vitamin E supplementation, plasma lipids and incidence of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). J Am Coll Nutr 11(1) (1992): 68-73.
Devereux G, Seaton A. Diet as a risk factor for atopy and asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 115(6) (2005): 110917.
Diepeveen SH et al. Effects of atorvastatin and vitamin E on lipoproteins and oxidative stress in dialysis Vitamin E
patients: a randomised-controiled trial. J Intern Med 257(5) (2005): 438-45.
DriskoJA et al. The use of antioxidant therapies during chemotherapy. Gynecol Oncol 88(3) (2003): 434-9.
Eber lein-Konig B et al. Protective effect against sunburn of combined systemic ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and d-[alpha]-tocopherol (vitamin E). J Am Acad Dermatol 38(1) (1998): 45-8.
Edmonds SE et al. Putative analgesic activity of repeated oral doses of vitamin E in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: Results of a prospective placebo controlled double blind trial. Ann Rheum Dis 56(11) (1997): 64955.
Engelhart MJ et al. Dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of Alzheimer disease. JAMA 287(24) (2002): 3223-9.
Fahn S. A pilot trial of high-dose alpha-tocopherol and ascorbate in early Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol 32 (Suppl.) (1992): S128-32.
Fariss MW, Zhang JG. Vitamin E therapy in Parkinson's disease. Toxicology 189(1-2) (2003): 129-46.
Fleischauer AT et al. Antioxidant supplements and risk of breast cancer recurrence and breast cancer-related mortality among postmenopausal women. Nutr Cancer 46(1) (2003): 15-22.
Fleischauer AT et al. Dietary antioxidants, supplements, and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Nutr Cancer 40(2) (2001): 92-8.
Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. Vitamin E. In: Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation; Bangkok, Thailand. FAO/WHO: Rome, 2002.
Fuchs J, Kern H. Modulation of UV-light-induced skin inflammation by d-alpha-tocopherol and 1-ascorbic acid a clinical study using solar simulated radiation. Free Radic Biol Med 25(9) (1998): 1006-12.
Galli F et al. Vitamin E, lipid profile, and peroxidation in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int Suppl 78 (2001): S148-54.
Geva E et al. The effect of antioxidant treatment on human spermatozoa and fertilization rate in an in vitro fertilization program. Fertil Steril 66(3) (1996): 430-4.
Giray B et al. The effect of vitamin E supplementation on antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in hemodialysis patients. Clin Chim Acta 338(1-2) (2003): 91-8.
GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial (Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto miocardico). Lancet 354(9177) (1999): 447-55.
Greenwald P et al. Micronutrients in cancer chemoprevention. Cancer Metastasis Rev 21(3-4) (2002): 217-30.
Hartman TJ et al. Effects of long-term alpha-tocopherol supplementation on serum hormones in older men. Prostate 46(1) (2001): 33-8.
Heinecke JW. Oxidized amino acids: culprits in human atherosclerosis and indicators of oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med 32(11) (2002): 1090-101.
Heinecke JW. Oxidative stress: new approaches to diagnosis and prognosis in atherosclerosis. Am J Cardiol 91(3 A)(2003): 12-16A.
Heinonen OP et al. Prostate cancer and supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene: incidence and mortality in a controlled trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 90(6) (1998): 440-6.
Helmy M et al. Antioxidants as adjuvant therapy in rheumatoid disease. A preliminary study. Arzneimittelforschung 51(4) (2001): 293-8.
lino Ket al. A controlled, double-blind study of dl-alpha-tocopheryl nicotinate (Juvela-Nicotinate) for treatment of symptoms in hypertension and cerebral arteriosclerosis. Jpn Heart J 18(3) (1977): 277-86.
Jain SK et al. Effect of modest vitamin E supplementation on blood glycated hemoglobin and triglyceride levels and red cell indices in type I diabetic patients. J Am Coll Nutr 15(5) (1996): 458-61.
Jaxa-Chamiec T et al. Antioxidant effects of combined vitamins C and E in acute myocardial infarction: The randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, multicenter pilot Myocardial Infarction and VITamins (MIVIT) trial. Kardiol Pol 62(4) (2005): 344-50.
Jialal I, Devaraj S. Scientific evidence to support a vitamin E and heart disease health claim: research needs. J Nutr 135(2) (2005a): 348-53.
Jialal I, Devaraj S. High-dosage vitamin E supplementation and all-cause mortality. Ann Intern Med 143(2)
(2005b): 155. Vitamin E 1354
Kaul N et al. Alpha-tocopherol and atherosclerosis. Exp Biol Med 226(1) (2001): 5-12.
Kessopoulou E et al. A double-blind randomized placebo cross-over controlled trial using the antioxidant vitamin E to treat reactive oxygen species associated male infertility. Fertil Steril 64(4) (1995): 825-31.
Khajehdehi P et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of supplementary vitamins E, C and their combination for treatment of haemodialysis cramps. Nephrol Dial Transplant 16(7) (2001): 1448-51.
Kitagawa M, Mino M. Effects of elevated d-alpha(RRR)-tocopherol dosage in man. J Nutr Sei Vitaminol (Tokyo) 35(2) (1989): 133-42.
Kleijnen J, Mackerras D. Vitamin E for intermittent claudication. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2 (2000): CD000987.
Lam son DW, Brignall MS. Antioxidants in cancer therapy; their actions and interactions with oncologic therapies. Altern Med Rev 4(5) (1999): 304-29.
Lee IM et al. Vitamin E in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer: The Women's Health Study: a randomized controlled trial. ACC Curr J Rev 14(10) (2005): 10-11.
LeppalaJM, Virtamo J, Fogelholm R, Albanes D, Taylor PR, Heinonen OP. Vitamin E and beta carotene supplementation in high risk for stroke: a subgroup analysis of the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Arch Neurol 57(10) (2000): 1503-9.
Lie de KE et al. Increased tendency towards gingival bleeding caused by joint effect of alpha-tocopherol supplementation and acetylsalicylic acid. Ann Med 30(6) (1998): 542-6.
Lin JY et al. UV photoprotection by combination topical antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin E. J Am Acad Dermatol 48(6) (2003): 866-74.
Lin FH et al. Ferulic acid stabilizes a solution of vitamins C and E and doubles its photoprotection of skin. J Invest Dermatol 125(4) (2005): 826-32.
London RS et al. Efficacy of alpha-tocopherol in the treatment of the premenstrual syndrome. J Re prod Med 32(6) (1987): 400-4.
London RS et al. Evaluation and treatment of breast symptoms in patients with the premenstrual syndrome. J Reprod Med 28(8) (1983): 503-8.
Lonn E et al. Effects of vitamin E on cardiovascular and microvascular outcomes in high-risk patients with diabetes: results of the HOPE study and MICRO-HOPE substudy. Diabetes Care 25(11) (2002): 1919-27.
Lonn E et al. Effects of long-term vitamin E supplementation on cardiovascular events and cancer: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 293(11) (2005): 1338-47.
Luchsinger JA et al. Antioxidant vitamin intake and risk of Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 60(2) (2003): 2038.
Machtey I, Ouaknine L. Tocopherol in osteoarthritis: a controlled pilot study. J Am Geriatr Soc 26(7) (1978): 328-30.
Martin-Jimenez M et al. Failure of high-dose tocopherol to prevent alopecia induced by doxorubicin. N Engl J Med 315(14) (1986): 894-5.
Masaki KH et al. Association of vitamin E and C supplement use with cognitive function and dementia in elderly men. Neurology 54(6) (2000): 1265-72.
McCall MR, Frei B. Can antioxidant vitamins materially reduce oxidative damage in humans? Free Radic Biol Med 26(7-8) (1999): 1034-53.
McVean M, Liebler DC. Inhibition of UVB induced DNA photodamage in mouse epidermis by topically applied alpha-tocopherol. Carcinogenesis 18(8) (1997): 1617-22.
McVean M, Liebler DC. Prevention of DNA photodamage by vitamin E compounds and sunscreens: roles of ultraviolet absorbance and cellular uptake. Mol Carcinog 24(3) (1999): 169-76.
Meagher EA. Treatment of atherosclerosis in the new millennium: is there a role for vitamin E? Prev Cardiol 6(2) (2003): 85-90.
Meydani M. Vitamin E. Lancet 345(8943) (1995): 170-5.
Meydani M, Hayes KC. Vitamin E. Available at: http.jn.nutrition.org (accessed 02-06-03).
Meydani SN et al. Vitamin E supplementation and in vivo immune response in healthy elderly subjects. A Vitamin E
randomized controlled trial. JAMA 277(17) (1997): 1380-6.
Meydani SN et al. Antioxidant modulation of cytokines and their biologic function in the aged. Z Ernahrungswiss 37 (Suppl 1) (1998): 35-42.
Miller ER III et al. Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Ann Intern Med 142(1) (2005): 37-46.
Minamiyama Y et al. Vitamin E deficiency accelerates nitrate tolerance via a decrease in cardiac P450 expression and increased oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med 40(5) (2006): 808-16.
Mireles-Rocha H et al. UVB photoprotection with antioxidants: effects of oral therapy with d-alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid on the minimal erythema dose. Acta Derm Venereol 82(1) (2002): 21-4.
Miwa K et al. Vitamin E deficiency in variant angina. Circulation 94(1) (1996): 14-18.
Miwa K et al. Consumption of vitamin E in coronary circulation in patients with variant angina. Cardiovasc Res 41(1) (1999): 291-8.
Morinobu T et al. The safety of high-dose vitamin E supplementation in healthy Japanese male adults. J Nutr Sei Vitaminol (Tokyo) 48(1) (2002): 6-9.
Morris MC et al. Relation of the tocopherol forms to incident Alzheimer disease and to cognitive change. Am J Clin Nutr 81(2) (2005): 508-14.
Munteanu A et al. Anti-atherosclerotic effects of vitamin E: myth or reality? J Cell Mol Med 8(1) (2004): 59-76.
Orbe J et al. Antioxidant vitamins increase the collagen content and reduce MMP-1 in a porcine model of atherosclerosis: implications for plaque stabilization. Atherosclerosis 167(1) (2003): 45-53.
Pace A et al. Neuroprotective effect of vitamin E supplementation in patients treated with cisplatin chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 21(5) (2003): 927-31.
Palmieri B et al. Vitamin E added silicone gel sheets for treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids. Int J Dermatol 34(7) (1995): 506-9.
Parkinson Study Group. Impact of de prenyl and tocopherol treatment on Parkinson's disease in DATATOP patients requiring levodopa: Parkinson Study Group. Ann Neurol 39(1) (1996): 37-45.
Parkinson Study Group. Mortality in DATATOP: a multicenter trial in early Parkinson's disease. Parkinson Study Group. Ann Neurol 43(3) (1998): 318-25.
Parkinson Study Group. MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of antioxidant vitamin supplementation in 20,536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 360(9326) (2002): 23-33.
Pearson PJK et al. Vitamin E supplements in asthma: a parallel group randomised placebo controlled trial. Thorax 59(8) (2004): 652-6.
Perez JE et al. High-dose alpha-tocopherol as a preventive of doxorubicin-induced alopecia. Cancer Treat Rep 70(10) (1986): 1213-14.
Petersen RC et al. Vitamin E and donepezil for the treatment of mild cognitive impairment. N Engl J Med 352(23) (2005): 2379-88.
Raju TN et al. Vitamin E prophylaxis to reduce retinopathy of prematurity: a reappraisal of published trials. J Pediatr 131(6) (1997): 844-50.
Rapola JM et al. Effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of angina pectoris: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. JAMA 275(9) (1996): 693-8.
Rautalahti MT et al. The effects of supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene on the incidence and mortality of carcinoma of the pancreas in a randomized, controlled trial. Cancer 86(1) (1999): 37-42.
Rimm EB et al. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in men. N Engl J Med 328(20) (1993): 1450-6.
Rolf C et al. Antioxidant treatment of patients with asthenozoospermia or moderate oligoasthenozoospermia with high-dose vitamin C and vitamin E: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Hum Reprod 14(4) (1999): 1028-33.
Saldeen K, Saldeen T. Importance of tocopherols beyond [alpha]-tocopherol: evidence from animal and human studies. Nutr Res 25(10) (2005): 877-89. _ _
Salonen JT et al. Antioxidant Supplementation in Atherosclerosis Prevention (ASAP) study: a randomized trial Vitamin E ljJO
of the effect of vitamins E and C on 3-year progression of carotid atherosclerosis. J Intern Med 248(5) (2000): 377-86.
Salonen RM et al. Six-year effect of combined vitamin C and E supplementation on atherosclerotic progression: the Antioxidant Supplementation in Atherosclerosis Prevention (ASAP) Study. Circulation 107(7) (2003): 947-53.
Sano M et al. A controlled trial of selegiline, alpha-tocopherol, or both as treatment for Alzheimer's disease: The Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study. N Engl J Med 336(17) (1997): 1216-22.
Scherak O et al. High dosage vitamin E therapy in patients with activated arthrosis. Z Rheumatol 49(6) (1990): 369-73.
Scherak O, Kolarz G. Vitamin E and rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 34(9) (1991): 1205-6.
Scuntaro I et al. Inhibition by vitamin E of drug accumulation and of phospholipidosis induced by desipramine and other cationic amphiphilic drugs in human cultured cells. Br J Pharmacol 119(5) (1996): 829-34.
Seifried HE et al. The antioxidant conundrum in cancer. Cancer Res 63(15)(2003): 4295-8.
Sen C, Packer L. Thiol homeostasis and supplements in physical exercise; Am J Clin Nutr 72(s) (2000): 653-69s.
Shanafelt TD et al. Pathophysiology and treatment of hot flashes. Mayo Clin Proc 77(11) (2002): 1207-18.
Shils M et al (eds). Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 9th edn. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1999-2000.
Stampfer MJ et al. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary disease in women. N Engl J Med 328(20) (1993): 1444-9.
Stephens NG et al. Randomised controlled trial of vitamin E in patients with coronary disease: Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS). Lancet 347(9004) (1996): 781-6.
Stone WL, Papas AM. Tocopherols and the etiology of colon cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 89(14)(1997): 1006-14.
Suleiman SA et al. Lipid peroxidation and human sperm motility: protective role of vitamin E. J Androl 17(5) (1996): 530-7.
Sung L et al. Vitamin E: the evidence for multiple roles in cancer. Nutr Cancer 46(1) (2003): 1-14.
Terentis AC et al. Vitamin E oxidation in human atherosclerotic lesions. Circ Res 90(3) (2002): 333-9.
Ulker S et al. Vitamins reverse endothelial dysfunction through regulation of eNOS and NAD(P)H oxidase activities. Hypertension 41(3) (2003): 534-9.
Varis K et al. Gastric cancer and premalignant lesions in atrophic gastritis: a controlled trial on the effect of supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene: The Helsinki Gastritis Study Group. Scand J Gastroenterol 33(3): (1998) 294-300.
Vatassery GT. In vitro oxidation of alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) in human platelets upon incubation with unsaturated fatty acids, diamide and superoxide. Biochim Biophys Acta 926(2) (1987): 160-9.
Virtamo J et al. Effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of primary nonfatal myocardial infarction and fatal coronary heart disease. Arch Intern Med 158(6) (1998): 668-75.
Virtamo J et al. Effects of supplemental alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene on urinary tract cancer: incidence and mortality in a controlled trial (Finland). Cancer Causes Control 11(10) (2000): 933-9.
Wahlqvist ML (ed.). Food and Nutrition, 2nd edn. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 2002.
Watanabe H et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of supplemental vitamin E on attenuation of the development of nitrate tolerance. Circulation 96(8) (1997): 2545-50.
Wijnen MH et al. Antioxidants reduce oxidative stress in claudicants. J Surg Res 96(2) (2001): 183-7.
Wittenborg A et al. Effectiveness of vitamin E in comparison with diclofenac sodium in treatment of patients with chronic polyarthritis. Z Rheumatol 57(4) (1998): 215-21.
Wluka AE et al. Supplementary vitamin E does not affect the loss of cartilage volume in knee osteoarthritis: a 2 year double blind randomized placebo controlled study. J Rheumatol 29(12) (2002): 2585-91.
Wood LA. Possible prevention of adriamycin-induced alopecia by tocopherol. N Engl J Med 312(16) (1985): 1060.
Yusuf S et al. Vitamin E supplementation and cardiovascular events in high-risk patients: The Heart Outcomes
Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. N Engl J Med 342(3) (2000): 154-60. Vitamin E 1357
Zandi PP et al. Reduced risk of Alzheimer disease in users of antioxidant vitamin supplements: the Cache County Study. Arch Neurol 61(1) (2004): 82-8.
Was this article helpful?
It's time for a change. Finally A Way to Get Pain Relief for Your Arthritis Without Possibly Risking Your Health in the Process. You may not be aware of this, but taking prescription drugs to get relief for your Arthritis Pain is not the only solution. There are alternative pain relief treatments available.