Adewunmi CO, Oguntimein BO, Furu P. Molluscicidal and antischistosomal activities of Zingiber officinale.
Planta Med 56.4 (1990): 374-6. Akoachere JF et al. Antibacterial effect of Zingiber officinale and Garcinia kola on respiratory tract pathogens.
East Afr Med J 79.11 (2002): 588-92. Altman RD, Marcussen KC. Effects of a ginger extract on knee pain in patients with osteoarthritis. Arthritis
Rheum 44.11 (2001): 2531-8. Arfeen Z et al. A double-blind randomized controlled trial of ginger for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anaesth Intensive Care 23.4 (1995): 449-52. Awang DVC. Ginger. Can Pharm J 125.7 (1992): 309-11. _
Betz O et al. Is ginger a clinically relevant antiemetic? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Ginger Jl /
Forsch Komplementarmed Klassische Naturheilkunde 12.1 (2005): 14-23. Bhandari U et al. Antihepatotoxic activity of ginger ethanol extract in rats. Pharm Biol 41.1 (2003): 68-71.
© 2007 Elsevier Australia
Bhattarai S, Tran VH, Duke CC. The stability of gingerol and shogaol in aqueous solutions. J Pharm Sei 90.10 (2001): 1658-64.
Bliddal H et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study of ginger extracts and Ibuprofen in osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 8.1 (2000): 9-12.
Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J (eds). Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Austin, TX: Integrative Medicine Communications, 2000.
Bone ME et al. Ginger root: a new antiemetic: The effect of ginger root on postoperative nausea and vomiting after major gynaecological surgery. Anaesthesia 45.8 (1990): 669-71.
Boone SA, Shields KM. Treating pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting with ginger. Ann Pharmacother 39.10 (2005): 1710-13.
Bordia A, Verma SK, Srivastava KC. Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rose.) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) on blood lipids, blood sugar and platelet aggregation in patients with coronary artery disease. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 56.5 (1997): 379-84.
Borrelli F et al. Effectiveness and safety of ginger in the treatment of pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting. Obstet Gynecol 105.4 (2005): 849-56.
Bryer E. A literature review of the effectiveness of ginger in alleviating mild-to-moderate nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. J Midwifery Women's Health 50.1 (2005): el-3.
Cady RK et al. Gelstat Migraine (sublingually administered feverfew and ginger compound) for acute treatment of migraine when administered during the mild pain phase. Med Sei Monitor Int Med J Exp Clin Res 11.9 (2005): PI65-9.
Canter PH. Ginger: Do we know what we are talking about? Focus Altern Complement Ther 9.3 (2004): 184-5.
Chaiyakunapruk N et al. The efficacy of ginger for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 194.1 (2006): 95-9.
Charles R, Garg SN, Kumar S. New gingerdione from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale. Fitoterapia 71.6 (2000): 716-18.
Dedov VN et al. Ginger ols: A novel class of vanilloid receptor (VR1) agonists. Br J Pharmacol 137.6 (2002): 793-8.
Denyer CV et al. Isolation of antirhinoviral sesquiterpenes from ginger (Zingiber officinale). J Nat Prod 57.5 (1994): 658-62.
Dib JG, El-Saddik RA. Ginger for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. J Pharm Pract Res 34.4 (2004): 305-7.
Eberhart LHJ et al. Ginger does not prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic surgery. AnesthAnalg 96.4 (2003): 995-8.
Eliakim R, Abulafia O, Sherer DM. Hyperemesis gravidarum: A current review. Am J Perinatol 17.4 (2000): 207-18.
Ernst E, Pittler MH. Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Br J Anaesth 84.3 (2000): 367-71.
Fischer-Rasmussen W et al. Ginger treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Re prod Biol 38.1 (1990): 19-24.
Flynn DL, Rafferty MF, Boctor AM. Inhibition of human neutrophil 5-lipoxygenase activity by gingerdione, shogaol, capsaicin and related pungent compounds. Prostaglandins Leukot Med 24.2-3 (1986): 195-8.
Fuhr man B et al. Ginger extract consumption reduces plasma cholesterol, inhibits LDL oxidation and attenuates development of atherosclerosis in atherosclerotic, apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. J Nutr 130.5 (2000): 1124-31.
Geiger JL. The essential oil of ginger, Zingiber officinale, and anaesthesia. Int J Aromather 15.1 (2005): 7-14.
Ghayur MN, Gilani AH. Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of ginger in gastrointestinal disorders. Dig Dis Sei 50.10 (2005): 1889-97.
Gonlachanvit S et al. Ginger reduces hyperglycemia-evoked gastric dysrhythmias in healthy humans: possible role of endogenous prostaglandins. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 307(3) (2003): 1098-103. Ginger 518
Goto C et al. Lethal efficacy of extract from Zingiber officinale (traditional Chinese medicine) or -shogaol and -gingerol in Anisakis larvae in vitro. Parasitol Res 76.8 (1990): 653-6.
Govindarajan V. Ginger: chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation: part 2. Crit Rev Food Sei Nutr 17 (1982): 189-258.
Grontved A, Hentzer E. Vertigo-reducing effect of ginger root: A controlled clinical study. ORL 48.5 (1986): 282-6.
Grzanna Ret al. Ginger: An herbal medicinal product with broad anti-inflammatory actions. J Med Food 8.2 (2005): 125-32.
Gulhas N et al. The effect of ginger and ondansetron on nausea and vomiting after middle ear surgery. Anestezi Dergisi 11.4 (2003): 265-8.
Gupta YK, Sharma M. Reversal of pyrogallol-induced delay in gastric emptying in rats by ginger (Zingiber officinale). Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 23.9 (2001): 501-3.
Haghighi M et al. Comparing the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract and ibuprofen on patients with osteoarthritis. Arch Iranian Med 8.4 (2005): 267-71.
Hasenohrl RU et al. Anxiolytic-like effect of combined extracts of Zingiber officinale and ginkgo biloba in the elevated plus-maze. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 53.2 (1996): 271-5.
Henry CJ, Piggott SM. Effect of ginger on metabolic rate. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 41.1 (1987): 89-92.
Holtmann S et al. The anti-motion sickness mechanism of ginger. A comparative study with placebo and dimenhydrinate. Acta Oto-Laryngol 108.3-4 (1989): 168-74.
Huang Q et al. Anti-5-hydroxytryptamine3 effect of galanolactone, diterpenoid isolated from ginger. Chem Pharm Bull 39.2 (1991): 397-9.
Janssen PL et al. Consumption of ginger (Zingiber officinale roscoe) does not affect ex vivo platelet thromboxane production in humans. Eur J Clin Nutr 50.11 (1996): 772-4.
Jewell D. Nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Clin Evid 7 (2002): 1277-83.
Jewell D, Young G. Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1 (2002): CD000145.
Jeyakumar SM, Nalini N, Menon VP. Antioxidant activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rose) in rats fed a high fatdiet. Med Sei Res 27.5 (1999): 341-4.
Jiang X et al. Effect of ginkgo and ginger on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 59.4 (2005): 425-32.
Jones SC, Miederhoff P, Karnes HT. The development of a human tissue model to determine the effect of plant-derived dietary supplements on prothrombin time. J Herbal Pharmacother 1.1 (2001): 21-34.
Kano Y, Zong QN, Komatsu K. Pharmacological properties of galenical preparation. XIV. Body temperature retaining effect of the Chinese traditional medicine, goshuyu-to and component crude drugs. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 39.3 (1991): 690-2.
Kawai T et al. Anti-emetic principles of Magnolia obovata bark and Zingiber officinale rhizome. Planta Med 60.1 (1994): 17-20.
Keating A, Chez RA. Ginger syrup as an antiemetic in early pregnancy. Altern Ther Health Med 8.5 (2002): 8991.
Keum YS et al. Induction of apoptosis and caspase-3 activation by chemopreventive -paradol and structurally related compounds in KB cells. Cancer Lett 177.1 (2002): 41-7.
Kikuzaki H, Usuguchi J, Nakatani N. Constituents of Zingiberaceae. I. Diarylheptanoids from the rhizomes of ginger (Zingiber officinale roscoe). Chem Pharm Bull 39.1 (1991): 120-2.
Kiuchi F et al. Inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis by gingerols and diarylheptanoids. Chem Pharm Bull 40.2 (1992): 387-91.
Kobayashi M, Shoji N, Ohizumi Y. Gingerol, a novel cardiotonic agent, activates the Ca2+-pumping ATPase in skeletal and cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum. Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembranes 903.1 (1987): 96-102.
Koo KLK et al. Gingerols and related analogues inhibit arachidonic acid-induced human platelet serotonin release and aggregation. Thromb Res 103.5 (2001): 387-97.
Langner E, Greifenberg S, Gruenwald J. Ginger: History and use. Adv Ther 15.1 (1998): 25-44. Ginger 519
Lien HC et al. Effects of ginger on motion sickness and gastric slow-wave dysrhythmias induced by circular vection. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 284.3 47-3 (2003): G481-9.
Lu CJ. Function of ginger on cerebrovascular disease and its gateway. Chin J Clin Rehab 9.45 (2005): 187-9.
Lumb AB. Effect of dried ginger on human platelet function. Thromb Haemost 71.1 (1994): 110-11.
Manusirivithaya S et al. Antiemetic effect of ginger in gynecologic oncology patients receiving cisplatin. Int J Gynecol Cancer 14.6 (2004): 1063-9.
Martins AP et al. Essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of three Zingiberaceae from S.Tome e Principe. Planta Med 67.6 (2001): 580-4.
Meyer K et al. Zingiber officinale (ginger) used to prevent 8-Mop associated nausea. Dermatol Nurs 7.4 (1995) 242-4.
Micklefield GH et al. Effects of ginger on gastroduodenal motility. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 37.7 (1999): 3416.
Mowrey D, Clayson D. Motion sickness, ginger and psychosis. Lancet 319.8273 (1982): 655-7.
Muller JL, Clauson KA. Pharmaceutical considerations of common herbal medicine. Am J Manage Care 3.11 (1997): 1753-70.
Mustafa T, Srivastava KC. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) in migraine headache. J Ethnopharmacol 29.3 (1990a): 267-73.
Mustafa T, Srivastava KC. Possible leads for arachidonic acid metabolism altering drugs from natural products. J Drug Develop 3.1 (1990b): 47-60.
Mustafa T, Srivastava KC, Jensen KB. Pharmacology of ginger, Zingiber officinale. J Drug Dev 6.11 (1993): 2539.
Nostro A et al. Effects of combining extracts (from propolis or Zingiber officinale) with clarithromycin on Helicobacter pylori. Phytother Res 20.3 (2006): 187-90.
Nurtjahja-Tjendraputra E et al. Effective anti-platelet and COX-1 enzyme inhibitors from pungent constituents of ginger. Thromb Res 111.4-5 (2003): 259-65.
Onogi T et al. Capsaicin-like effect of (6)-shogaol on substance P-containing primary afferents of rats: A possible mechanism of its analgesic action. Neuropharmacology 31.11 (1992): 1165-9.
Penna SC et al. Anti-inflammatory effect of the hydralcoholic extract of Zingiber officinale rhizomes on rat paw and skin edema. Phytomedicine 10.5 (2003): 381-5.
Phillips S, Hutchinson S, Ruggier R. Zingiber officinale does not affect gastric emptying rate: A randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Anaesthesia 48.5 (1993a): 393-5.
Phillips S, Ruggier R, Hutchinson SE. Zingiber officinale (ginger): an antiemetic for day case surgery. Anaesthesia 48.8 (1993b): 715-17.
Plate 1 K, Srinivasan K. Influence of dietary spices or their active principles on digestive enzymes of small intestinal mucosa in rats. Int J Food Sei Nutr 47.1 (1996): 55-9.
Platel K, Srinivasan K. Studies on the influence of dietary spices on food transit time in experimental rats. Nutr Res 21.9 (2001): 1309-14.
Pongrojpaw D, Chiamchanya C. The efficacy of ginger in prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting after outpatient gynecological laparoscopy. J Med Assoc Thailand 86.3 (2003): 244-50.
Portnoi G et al. Prospective comparative study of the safety and effectiveness of ginger for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 189.5 (2003): 1374-7.
Rosengarten FJ. The Book of Spices. Wynnewood, PA: Livingston Publishing Co., 1969.
Schmid R et al. Comparison of seven commonly used agents for prophylaxis of seasickness. J Travel Med 1.4 (1994): 203-6.
Schuhbaum H, Franz G. Ginger: Spice and versatile medicinal plant. Z Phytother 21.4 (2000): 203-9 [in German].
Schwertner HA et al. Variation in concentration and labeling of ginger root dietary supplements. Obstet Gynecol 107.6 (2006): 1337-43.
Seetharam KA, Pasricha JS. Condiments and contact dermatitis of the finger-tips. Indian J Dermatol Venereol
Leprol 53.6 (1987): 325-8. Ginger 520
Sertie JAA et al. Preventive anti-ulcer activity of the rhizome extract of Zingiber officinale. Fitoterapia 63.1 (1992): 55-9.
Sharma A et al. Zingiber officinale Rose, modulates gamma radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 81.4 (2005): 864-70.
Sharma JN et al. Suppressive effects of eugenol and ginger oil on arthritic rats. Pharmacology 49.5 (1994): 31418.
Shoji N, Iwasa A, Takemoto T. Cardiotonic principles of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). J Pharm Sei 71.10 (1982): 1174-5.
Smith C et al. A randomized controlled trial of ginger to treat nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 103.4 (2004): 639-45.
Sontakke S, Thawani V, Naik MS. Ginger as an antiemetic in nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy: A randomized, cross-over, double blind study. Indian J Pharmacol 35.1 (2003): 32-6.
Sripramote M, Lekhyananda N. A randomized comparison of ginger and vitamin B6 in the treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. J Med Assoc Thailand 86.9 (2003): 846-53.
Srivastava KC, Mustafa T. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) in rheumatism and musculoskeletal disorders. Med Hypotheses 39.4 (1992): 342-8.
Stenton SB, Bungard TJ, Ackman ML. Interactions between warfarin and herbal products, minerals, and vitamins: A pharmacist's guide. Can J Hospital Pharm 54.3 (2001): 184-90.
Stewart JJ et al. Effects of ginger on motion sickness susceptibility and gastric function. Pharmacology 42.2 (1991): 111-20.
Thomson M et al. The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rose.) as a potential anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic agent. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 67.6 (2002): 475-8.
Tjendraputra E et al. Effect of ginger constituents and synthetic analogues on cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme in intact cells. Bioorgan Chem 29.3 (2001): 156-63.
Vaes LPJ, Chyka PA. Interactions of warfarin with garlic, ginger, ginkgo, or ginseng: Nature of the evidence. Ann Pharmacother 34.12 (2000): 1478-82.
Verma SK, Bordia A. Ginger, fat and fibrinolysis. Indian J Med Sei 55.2 (2001): 83-6.
Visalyaputra S et al. The efficacy of ginger root in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after outpatient gynaecological laparoscopy. Anaesthesia 53.5 (1998): 506-10.
Vishwakarma SL et al. Anxiolytic and antiemetic activity of Zingiber officinale. Phytother Res 16.7 (2002): 6216.
Vutyavanich T et al. Ginger for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: Randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 97.4 (2001): 577-82.
Weidner MS, Sigwart K. The safety of a ginger extract in the rat. J Ethnopharmacol 73.3 (2000): 513-20.
Wigler I et al. The effects of Zintona EC (a ginger extract) on symptomatic gonarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 11.11 (2003): 783-9.
Wilasrusmee C, Bruch D, Kittur DS. Zingiber officinale (ginger) extract prolongs cardiac allograft surviaval. Pediatr Transplant Suppl 7.4 (2003): 131.
Willetts KE et al. Effect of a ginger extract on pregnancy-induced nausea: A randomised controlled trial. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 43.2 (2003): 139-44.
World Health Organization. Rhizoma Zingiberis. Geneva: WHO. Available at: www.who.int/medicines/library/ trm/medicinalplants (accessed 15-12-03).
Yamada Y, Kikuzaki H, Nakatani N. Identification of antimicrobial gingerols from ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). J Antibact Antifungal Agents Jpn 20.6 (1992): 309-11.
YamaharaJ et al. Cholagocic effect of ginger and its active constituents. J Ethnopharmacol 13.2 (1985): 217-25.
YamaharaJ et al. The anti-ulcer effect in rats of ginger constituents. J Ethnopharmacol 23.2-3 (1988): 299-304.
YamaharaJ et al. Gastrointestinal motility enhancing effect of ginger and its active constituents. Chem Pharm Bull 38.2 (1990): 430-1.
YamaharaJ et al. Stomachic principles in ginger. II: Pungent and anti-ulcer effects of low polar constituents isolated from ginger, the dried rhizoma of Zingiber officinale Roscoe cultivated in Taiwan: The absolute Ginger jZ 1
stereostructure of a new diarylheptanoid. Yakugaku Zasshi 112.9 (1992): 645-55 [in Japanese].
Yamahara J et al. Pharmacological study on ginger processing. I: Antiallergic activity and cardiotonic action of gingerols and shogaols. Nat Med 49.1 (1995): 76-83 [in Japanese].
Yoshikawa M et al. 6-Gingesulfonic acid, a new anti-ulcer principle, and gingerglycolipids A, B and C, three new monoacyldigalactosylglycerols from Zingiberis rhizoma originating in Taiwan. Chem Pharm Bull 40.8 (1992): 2239-41.
Yoshikawa M et al. Crude drug processing by far-infrared treatment. II: Chemical fluctuation of the constituents during the drying of Zingiberis Rhizoma. Yakugaku Zasshi 113.10 (1993): 712-17.
Yoshikawa M et al. Stomachic principles in ginger. Ill: An anti-ulcer principle, 6- gingesulfonic acid, and three monoacyldigalactosylglycerols, gingerglycolipids A, B, and C, from Zingiberis Rhizoma originating in Taiwan. Chem Pharm Bull 42.6 (1994): 1226-30.
Zhou H-L et al. The modulatory effects of the volatile oil of ginger on the cellular immune response in vitro and in vivo in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 105.1-2 (2006): 301-5.
Was this article helpful?
A lot of us run through the day with so many responsibilities that we don't have even an instant to treat ourselves. Coping with deadlines at work, attending to the kids, replying to that demanding client we respond and react to the needs of other people. It's time to do a few merciful things to reward yourself and get your health in order.