Adam O et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of a low arachidonic acid diet and fish oil in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatol Int 23.1 (2003): 27-36. Anti M et al. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on rectal mucosal cell proliferation in subjects at risk for colon cancer. Gastroenterology 103 (1992): 883-91. Bagga D et al. Long-chain n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratios in breast adipose tissue from women with and without breast cancer. Nutr Cancer 42.2 (2002): 180-5. Bambrick HJ, Kjellstrom TE. Good for your heart but bad for your baby? Revised guidelines for fish consumption in pregnancy. Med J Aust 181.2 (2004): 61-2. Bang HO et al. The composition of the Eskimo food in north western Greenland. Am J Clin Nutr 33.12 (1980): 2657-61.
Beers MH, Berkow R (eds). The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, 17th edn. Rahway, NJ: Merck and Fish oils
Belluzzi A. N-3 fatty acids for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. Proc Nutr Soc 61.3 (2002): 391-5.
Belluzzi A et al. Effect of an enteric-coated fish-oil preparation on relapses in Crohn's disease. N Engl J Med 334.24 (1996): 1557-60.
Berbert AA et al. Supplementation offish oil and olive oil in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Nutrition 21.2 (2005): 131-6.
Bhattacharya A et al. Different ratios of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic omega-3 fatty acids in commercial fish oils differentially alter pro-inflammatory cytokines in peritoneal macrophages from C57BI7 6 female mice. J Nutr Biochem (2006) [Epub ahead of print].
Billman GE et al. Prevention of ischemia-induced cardiac sudden death by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in dogs. Lipids 32.11 (1997): 1161-8.
Billman GE et al. Prevention of sudden cardiac death by dietary pure omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in dogs. Circulation 99.18 (1999): 2452-57.
Bjorneboe A et al. Effect of n-3 fatty acid supplement to patients with atopic dermatitis. J Intern Med Suppl 225.731 (1989): 233-6.
Bruinsma KA, Taren DL. Dieting, essential fatty acid intake, and depression. Nutr Rev 58.4 (2000): 98-108.
Bucher HC et al. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Med 112.4 (2002): 298-304.
Burr ML et al. Effects of changes in fat, fish, and fibre intakes on death and myocardial reinfarction: diet and reinfarction trial (DART). Lancet 2.8666 (1989): 757-61.
Burr ML et al. Lack of benefit of dietary advice to men with angina: results of a controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr 57.2 (2003): 193-200.
Calder PC. Dietary modification of inflammation with lipids. Proc Nutr Soc 61.3 (2002): 345-58.
Calder PC. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammation: from molecular biology to the clinic. Lipids 38.4 (2003): 343-52.
Calder PC et al. Dietary fish oil suppresses human colon tumour growth in athymic mice. Clin Sei (Lond) 94.3 (1998): 303-11.
Caygill CP et al. Fat, fish, fish oil and cancer. Br J Cancer 74.1 (1996): 159-64.
Cleland LG et al. The role offish oils in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Drugs 63.9 (2003): 845-53.
Cohen JT et al. A quantitative analysis of prenatal intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cognitive development. Am J Prev Med 29.4 (2005): 366.el-el2.
Conquer JA et al. Fatty acid analysis of blood plasma of patients with Alzheimer's disease, other types of dementia, and cognitive impairment. Lipids 35.12 (2000): 1305-12.
Curtis CL et al. n-3 fatty acids specifically modulate catabolic factors involved in articular cartilage degradation. J Biol Chem 275.2 (2000): 721-4.
Davis BC, Kris-Etherton PM. Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications. Am J Clin Nutr 78.3 (2003): 640-6S.
De Vriese SR et al. In humans, the seasonal variation in poly-unsaturated fatty acids is related to the seasonal variation in violent suicide and serotonergic markers of violent suicide. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 71.1 (2004): 13-18.
Deck C, Radack K. Effects of modest doses of omega-3 fatty acids on lipids and lipoproteins in hypertriglyceridemic subjects. A randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 149.8 (1989): 1857-62.
Din JN et al. Omega 3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: fishing for a natural treatment. BMJ 328 (2004): 30-5.
Engstrom K et al. Effect of low-dose aspirin in combination with stable fish oil on whole blood production of eicosanoids. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 64.6 (2001): 291-7.
Erkkila AT et al. n-3 Fatty acids and 5-y risks of death and cardiovascular disease events in patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Clin Nutr 78.1 (2003): 65-71.
Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ). Available at: www.foodstandards.gov.au (accessed 18-03-04).
Geleijnse JM et al. Blood pressure response to fish oil supplementation: me tar egression analysis of randomized trials. J Hypertens 20.8 (2002): 1493-9.
Hamazaki T et al. The effect of docosahexaenoic acid on aggression in young adults: A placebo-controlled double-blind study. J Clin Invest 97.4 (1996): 1129-33.
Hamazaki T et al. Docosahexaenoic acid does not affect aggression of normal volunteers under nonstressful conditions: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Lipids 33.7 (1998): 663-7.
Hashimoto M et al. Chronic administration of docosahexaenoic acid ameliorates the impairment of spatial cognition learning ability in amyloid beta-infused rats. J Nutr 135.3 (2005): 549-55.
He Hand IB et al. Maternal supplementation with very-long chain n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation augments children's IQ at 4 years of age. Pediatrics 111.1 (2003): e39-44.
Hellsten G et al. Effects on fibrinolytic activity of corn oil and a fish oil preparation enriched with omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids in a long-term study. Curr Med Res Opin 13.3 (1993): 133-9.
Hightower JM, Moore D. Mercury levels in high-end consumers of fish. Environ Health Perspect 111 (2003): 604-8.
Holub BJ. Clinical nutrition: 4. Omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular care. Can Med Assoc J 166.5 (2002): 608-15.
Hooper L et al. Risks and benefits of omega 3 fats for mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review. BMJ 332.7544 (2006): 752-60.
Hornstra G. Influence of dietary fish oil on arterial thrombosis and atherosclerosis in animal models and in man. J Intern Med Suppl 225.731 (1989): 53-9.
Horrocks LA, YeoYK. Health benefits of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Pharmacol Res 40.3 (1999): 211-25.
Houston MC. Nutraceuticals, vitamins, antioxidants, and minerals in the prevention and treatment of hypertension. Progr Cardiovasc Dis 47.6 (2005): 396-449.
Hu FB et al. Fish and omega-3 fatty acid intake and risk of coronary heart disease in women. JAMA 287 (2002) 1815-21.
Jeppesen J et al. Triglyceride concentration and ischemic heart disease: an eight-year follow-up in the Copenhagen Male Study. Circulation 97.11 (1998): 1029-36.
KangJX, Leaf A. The cardiac antiarrhythmic effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid. Lipids 31 [Suppl] (1996): S41-4.
KangJX, Leaf A. Prevention of fatal cardiac arrhythmias by polyunsaturated fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr 71.1 [Suppl] (2000): 202-7S.
Kinsella JE. Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on factors related to cardiovascular disease. Am J Cardiol 60.12 (1987): 23-32G.
Kremer JM. n-3 fatty acid supplements in rheumatoid arthritis. Am J Clin Nutr 71.1 [Suppl.] (2000): 349-5 IS.
Kristensen SD et al. Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and human platelet function: a review with particular emphasis on implications for cardiovascular disease. J Intern Med [Suppl] 225.731 (1989): 141-50.
Larsson SC et al. Dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids for the prevention of cancer: a review of potential mechanisms. Am J Clin Nutr 79.6 (2004): 935-45.
Lauritzen L et al. The essentiality of long chain n-3 fatty acids in relation to development and function of the brain and retina. Progr Lipid Res 40.1-2 (2001): 1-94.
Leaf A. On the reanalysis of the GISSI-Prevenzione. Circulation 105.16 (2002): 1874-5.
Leitzmann MF et al. Dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and the risk of prostate cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 80.1 (2004): 204-16.
Lemaitre RN et al. n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids, fatal ischemic heart disease, and nonfatal myocardial infarction in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 77.2 (2003): 319-25.
Lim WS et al. Omega 3 fatty acid for the prevention of dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1 (2006): CD005379.
Llor X et al. The effects offish oil, olive oil, oleic acid and linoleic acid on colorectal neoplastic processes. Clin
Mac Lean CH et al. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on lipids and glycemic control in type II diabetes and the metabolic syndrome and on inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, renal disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and osteoporosis. Evid Rep Technol Assess (Summ) 89 (2004): 1-4.
Mahaffey KRet al. Blood organic mercury and dietary mercury intake: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 and 2000. Environ Health Perspect 112.5 (2004): 562-70.
Marchioli R et al. Early protection against sudden death by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids after myocardial infarction: time-course analysis of the results of the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico (GlSSI)-Prevenzione Circulation 105 (2002): 1897-903.
McLennan PL. Myocardial membrane fatty acids and the antiarrhythmic actions of dietary fish oil in animal models. Lipids 36 [Suppl] (2001): SI 11-14.
McLennan PL et al. Dietary fish oil prevents ventricular fibrillation following coronary artery occlusion and re perfusion. Am Heart J 116.3 (1988): 709-17.
McLennan PL et al. Reversal of the arrhythmogenic effects of long-term saturated fatty acid intake by dietary n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr 51.1 (1990): 53-8.
Meyer BJ et al. Dietary intakes and food sources of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Lipids 38.4 (2003): 391-8.
Mickleborough TD et al. Protective effect offish oil supplementation on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthma. Chest 129.1 (2006): 39-49.
Miura S et al. Modulation of intestinal immune system by dietary fat intake: relevance to Crohn's disease. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 13.12 (1998): 1183-90.
Montori VM et al. Fish oil supplementation in type 2 diabetes: a quantitative systematic review. Diabetes Care 23.9 (2000): 1407-15.
Mori TA et al. Differential effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on vascular reactivity of the forearm microcirculation in hyperlipidemic, overweight men. Circulation 102.11 (2000): 1264-9.
Morris MC et al. Does fish oil lower blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled trials. Circulation 88.2 (1993): 523-33.
Morris MC et al. Consumption offish and n-3 fatty acids and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 60.7 (2003): 940-6.
Mucke L, Pitas RE. Food for thought: essential fatty acid protects against neuronal deficits in transgenic mouse model of AD. Neuron 43.5 (2004): 596-9.
Navarro E et al. Abnormal fatty acid pattern in rheumatoid arthritis. A rationale for treatment with marine and botanical lipids. J Rheumatol 27.2 (2000): 298-303.
Nemets H et al. Omega-3 treatment of childhood depression: a controlled, double-blind pilot study. Am J Psychiatry 163.6 (2006): 1098-100.
Nettleton JA, Katz R. n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in type 2 diabetes: A review. J Am Diet Assoc 105.3 (2005): 428-40.
Pedersen M et al. Diet and risk of rheumatoid arthritis in a prospective cohort. J Rheumatol 32.7 (2005): 124952.
Peet M. Eicosapentaenoic acid in the treatment of schizophrenia and depression: rationale and preliminary double-blind clinical trial results. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 69.6 (2003): 477-85.
PizzornoJ, Murray M. Textbook of Natural Medicine. St Louis: Elsevier, 2006.
Radack K et al. The comparative effects of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on plasma fibrinogen levels: a controlled clinical trial in hypertriglyceridemic subjects. J Am Coll Nutr 9.4 (1990): 352-7.
Richardson AJ, Puri BK. The potential role of fatty acids in attention-defic it/hyper activity disorder. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 63.1-2 (2000): 79-87.
Rose DP, ConnollyJM. Omega-3 fatty acids as cancer chemopreventive agents. Pharmacol Ther 83.3 (1999): 217-44.
Rosell MS et al. Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma in British meat-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men. Am J Clin Nutr 82.2 (2005): 327-34.
Ross CM. Fish oil, adrenal activation, and cardiovascular health [Letter]. Thromb Res 116.3 (2005): 273.
Salam MT et al. Maternal fish consumption during pregnancy and risk of early childhood asthma. J Asthma 42.6 (2005): 513-18.
Simopoulos AP. Essential fatty acids in health and chronic disease. Am J Clin Nutr 70.3 [Suppl] (1999): 560-9S.
Simopoulos AP. Omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and autoimmune diseases. J Am Coll Nutr 21.6 (2002): 495-505.
Sirtori CR, Galli C. N-3 fatty acids and diabetes. Biomed Pharmacother 56.8 (2002): 397-406.
Sirtori CR et al. N-3 fatty acids do not lead to an increased diabetic risk in patients with hyperlipidemia and abnormal glucose tolerance: Italian Fish Oil Multicenter Study. Am J Clin Nutr 65.6 (1997): 1874-81.
Siscovick DS et al. The fish story: a diet-heart hypothesis with clinical implications: n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, myocardial vulnerability, and sudden death. Circulation 107.21 (2003): 2632-4.
Soyland E et al. Dietary supplementation with very long-chain n-3 fatty acids in patients with atopic dermatitis A double-blind, multicentre study. Br J Dermatol 130.6 (1994): 757-64.
Stark KD et al. Effect of a fish-oil concentrate on serum lipids in postmenopausal women receiving and not receiving hormone replacement therapy in a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Am J Clin Nutr 72.2 (2000): 389-94.
Stern AH. A review of the studies of the cardiovascular health effects of methylmercury with consideration of their suitability for risk assessment. Environ Res 98.1 (2005): 133-42.
Stoll BA. N-3 fatty acids and lipid peroxidation in breast cancer inhibition. Br J Nutr 87.3 (2002): 193-8.
Stone NJ. The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell' Infarto Miocardio (GlSSI)-Prevenzione Trial on fish oil and vitamin E supplementation in myocardial infarction survivors. Curr Cardiol Rep 2.5 (2000): 445-51.
Terano T et al. Docosahexanoic acid supplementation improves the moderately severe dementia from thrombotic cerebrovascular disease. Lipids 34 [Suppl] (1994): S345-6.
Terry PD et al. Intakes of fish and marine fatty acids and the risks of cancers of the breast and prostate and of other hormone-related cancers: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Am J Clin Nutr 77.3 (2003): 53243.
Terry PD et al. Long-chain (n-3) fatty acid intake and risk of cancers of the breast and the prostate: recent epidemiological studies, biological mechanisms, and directions for future research. J Nutr 134 (2004): 3412-20S.
Ulbricht CE, Basch EM. Natural Standard Herb and Supplement Reference. St Louis: Mosby, 2005.
Volker D et al. Efficacy of fish oil concentrate in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 27.10 (2000): 2343-6.
von Schacky C. The role of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease. Curr Atheroscler Rep 5.2 (2003): 139-45.
von Schacky C et al. The effect of n-3 fatty acids on coronary atherosclerosis: results from SCIMO, an angiographic study, background and implications. Lipids 36 [Suppl] (2001): S99-102.
Weber P, Raederstorff D. Triglyceride-lowering effect of omega-3 LC-polyunsaturated fatty acids: a review. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 10.1 (2000): 28-37.
Weisburger JH. Dietary fat and risk of chronic disease: mechanistic insights from experimental studies. J Am Diet Assoc 97.7 [Suppl] (1997): SI6-23.
Williams C et al. Stereo acuity at age 3-5 years in children born full term is associated with pre-natal and postnatal dietary factors: a report from a population-based cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr 73 (2001): 316-22.
Wong KW. Clinical efficacy of n-3 fatty acid supplementation in patients with asthma. J Am Diet Assoc 105.1 (2005): 98-105.
Woods RK et al. Dietary marine fatty acids (fish oil) for asthma in adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 3 (2002): CD001283.
Yehuda S et al. Essential fatty acids and the brain: From infancy to aging. Neurobiol Aging 26.1 [Suppl 1] (2005): 98-102.
Was this article helpful?