The anti-inflammatory activity of ginkgo has been investigated for the whole extract and an isolated biflavonoid component known as ginkgetin, with both forms demonstrating significant anti-inflammatory activity.
Ginkgo extract Intravenously administered ginkgo extract produced an antiinflammatory effect that was as strong as the same dose of prednisolone (i.e. 1 mg GBE = 1 mg prednisolone) in an experimental model. Ginkgo extract was also found to significantly reduce the concentration of PGE2, TNF-alpha and NO production in vitro (llieva et al 2004). Studies with subcutaneously administered G. biloba extract in experimental models have also identified significant anti-inflammatory activity, with the addition of antinociceptive effects (Abdel-Salam et al 2004). Ginkgetin Ginkgetin showed a stronger anti-inflammatory activity than prednisolone when administered by intraperitoneal injection in an animal model of arthritis. Histological examination of the knee joints confirmed the effect (Kim et al 1999). When used topically in an animal model of chronic skin inflammation and proinflammatory gene expression, it was found to inhibit ear oedema by approximately 26% and PGE2 production by 30% (Lim et al 2006). Histological comparisons revealed that ginkgetin reduced epidermal hyperplasia, inhibited phospholipase A2, and suppressed COX-2 and iNOS expression (Lim et al 2006).
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