References

Olive oil consumption and reduced incidence of hypertension the SUN study. Lipids 39 12004) 1233-c. ' Andrikopoulos NK et al. Oleuropein inhibits LDL oxidation induced by cooking oil frying by-products and platelet aggregation induced by platelet-activating factor. Lebensmitte 1-Wissensch Technol 35 (2002) 47984. Aziz NH et al. Comparative antibacterial and antifungal effects of some phenolic compounds. Microbios 93 (1998) 43-54. Benavente-Garcia O et al....

Arthritis

Overall, current evidence from clinical trials suggest that devil's claw may be a useful treatment for arthritis however, it is suggested, as with many herbal medicines, that evidence of effectiveness is not transferrable from product to product and that the evidence is more robust for products that contain at least 50 mg of harpagoside in the daily dosage (Chrubasik et al 2003a, Gagnier et al 2004). An observational study of 6 months' use of 3-9 g day of an aqueous extract of devil's claw root...

Chondroprotective Effect

Glucosamine is a primary substrate and stimulant of proteoglycan biosynthesis and inhibits the degradation of proteoglycans. Glucosamine may also stimulate synovial production of hyaluronic acid, a compound responsible for the lubricating and shock-absorbing properties of synovial fluid (McCarty 1998, McCarty et al 2000). Glucosamine has been found to cause a statistically significant stimulation of proteoglycan production by chondrocytes from human osteoarthritic cartilage culture (Bassleer et...

Osteoarthritis

There is strong evidence to suggest that glucosamine is effective in treating the symptoms of OA, as well as being effective in slowing the disease progression. A Cochrane review of 16 RCTs has concluded that 'there is good evidence that glucosamine is both effective and safe in treating osteoarthritis' and that 'glucosamine therapy may indeed represent a significant breakthrough in the pharmacological management of osteoarthritis' (Towheed et al 2003). Although most studies have been of OA of...

Clinical Use

OSTEOARTHRITIS SYMPTOM CONTROL AND RETARDING DISEASE PROGRESSION Chondroitin sulfate appears to produce a slow but gradual reduction of the clinical symptoms of OA. Multiple human clinical trials lasting from a few weeks to 3 years have shown that chondroitin sulfate can significantly alleviate symptoms of pain and improve function in patients with OA of the knee (Bourgeois et al 1998, Bucsi & Poor 1998, Fioravanti et al 1991, Lazebnik 2005, Mazieres et al 2001, Morreale et al 1996, Oliviero...

Antiinflammatory And Analgesic

The anti-inflammatory effects of ginger may be due to its effects on the arachidonic acid cascade, as COX-1 and -2 and lipoxygenase inhibition has been shown in vitro (Kobayashi et al 1987) and high oral doses of an aqueous extract of ginger (500 mg kg) significantly lowered serum PGE2 and thromboxane B2 levels in rats (Thomson etal 2002). Ginger also suppresses leukotriene biosynthesis by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase, thus distinguishing ginger from NSAIDs. Additionally, ginger extract has been...

Deficiency Signs And Symptoms

Beta-carotene is considered a conditionally essential nutrient and becomes an essential nutrient when the dietary intake of retinol vitamin A is inadequate. Low serum beta-carotene levels have been associated with male gender, younger age, lower non-HDL-cholesterol, greater ethanol consumption and higher BMI Brady et al 1996 , increased lipoprotein density and the presence of inflammation Kritchevsky 1999 , high C-reactive protein Erlinger et al 2001 , high blood glucose Abahusain et al 1999 ,...

Antiinflammatory

Chamomile extract and various isolated constituents within chamomile have demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity in a variety of tests. Chamomile extract showed anti-inflammatory effects when applied topically in animal models of inflammation Al-Hindawi et al 1989, Plevova 1999, Shipochliev et al 1981 . In a comparative trial, hydro-alcoholic extracts of chamomile produced antiinflammatory actions when applied topically in the croton ear test in the mouse. The hydro-alcoholic extract reduced...