Rapid Benzodiazepine Detox

Panic Away Program

Panic Away, which is a completely natural approach has been developed by Barry McDonagh over many years after he himself suffered from panic attacks and general anxiety for years. Barry McDonagh identifies the key element to curing panic attacks and overcoming anxiety as no longer fearing the thought of having a panic attack. The Panic Away Techniques Can Be Used Anywhere Various anxiety sufferers try therapy to get rid of the panic attacks and anxiety, but find not so good result from it, and it will be uncomfortable. There are other techniques, but they may be very embarrassing to utilize in public. The Panic Away course will be a perfect solution for most of the people who suffer from anxiety. The audio and videos series really helped the panic sufferer get on track right away. It is like one to one coaching and counseling. Continue reading...

Panic Away Summary


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The Panic Miracle

The Only Holistic System In Existence That Will Teach You How To Permanently Cure Your Panic Attacks and General Anxiety, Regain Your Self Confidence, and Enjoy Life Without Fear! Panic Miracle System is a 250 page downloadable e-book, jam-packed cover to cover with all the secret natural set of panic attack cure techniques, unique powerful protocols and the step-by step holistic panic attack system I've discovered in over 14 years of panic attack and anxiety research. This program contains all the information you'll ever need to eliminate your panic attack permanently without drugs, without therapy and without any side effects. A Clinically Proven Holistic Plan for Quickly and Permanently Stopping Panic Attacks and Anxiety Naturally and Safely, Boosting Self Confidence, and Regaining Your Life Back. Successfully Used by 1,000s of Men and Women World-wide. Panic Miracle is Customizable for Your Unique Condition Every person is completely different. No two reasons for panic attacks are exactly the same. That's why the Panic Miracle system includes guidelines as to how you can customize the strategies and methods for your unique situation. You will be taught, step-by-step, how to be your own 'scientist' and detect subtle factors within your own body, lifestyle and environment that need attention while working with the plan to overcome your anxiety. Continue reading...

Panic Miracle System Summary

Contents: 250 Page EBook
Author: Chris Bayliss
Official Website: www.panicmiracle.com
Price: $47.00

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

The optimal treatment plan for GAD includes medication. The three types of medication most commonly prescribed are azapirones, benzodiazepines, and antidepressants. The selection of a particular type will depend on the nature and severity of the patients symptoms and on the side effects of the chosen drug. Although benzodiazepines are often prescribed for GAD and can produce short-term benefit, they are not recommended for long-term treatment because they induce physiologic dependence. Patients with less severe GAD should be started on buspirone hydrochloride, while those with more severe GAD will probably require an antidepressant to control their symptoms. The azapirone buspirone hydrochloride is a weak antagonist of 5-HT1A receptors and has few side effects. The initial dose is 5 mg po tid, and the medication can be titrated up to 20 mg tid if needed. (The monthly cost of the drug at this latter dose is about 260.) Buspirone hydrochloride is unlikely to interact with other...

Anxiety Disorders

Mellitus, osteoarthritis, cancer, pulmonary hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Symptoms of fatigue, insomnia, and pruritus may occur in the absence of specific medical or psychiatric pathology. Fatigue is a particularly disabling symptom that is not associated with advanced HIV disease or the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) but rather with psychological distress (Henderson et al., 2005). Anxiety related to these symptoms as well as to life stresses can be devastating. Added to these commonly encountered sources of anxiety is the diagnosis of AIDS itself as well as some of its symptoms such as memory impairment, diarrhea, incontinence, and even cachexia. In reviewing the specific anxiety disorders commonly seen in persons with HIV and AIDS, it is important to recognize that these are often superimposed on the anxiety that is experienced in the general population and commonly in the population with chronic symptomatic medical illness (Wells...

Kidney Syndromes and Chinese Nutrition

General weakness, sensitivity to cold, loss of strength, incontinence, enuresis (bedwetting), impotence, premature ejaculation, knee pain, chronic cystitis (urinary tract infections), nephritis, frigidity, depression, anxiety, chronic degenerative arthropathy, rheumatoid arthritis.

Kidney Yang Vacuity Shen Yang Xu

Urological disorders such as chronic cystitis (urinary tract infection), nephritis, prostatitis, urethritis, sexual problems such as frigidity, impotence, and premature ejaculation depression, anxiety, recurrent lumbago, sciatica, degenerative arthropathy, rheumatoid arthritis, impaired hearing, tinnitus.

The Checklist in History Taking

Anxiety nervous breakdown, or tranquilizer history, or hyperventilated with paresthesias, cold perspiration, palpitations, and days without dyspnea (Suggests neurocirculatory asthenia.) 3. Hysterical always in the presence of someone else Paresthesias or dyspnea also (hyperventilation) Ever injured self 14. Cardiac syncope with palpitations Long Q-T syndrome (precipitated by qui-nidine, disopyramide, exercise, fatigue, anxiety, or a sudden loud noise or preceded by nausea or headache) Erythromycin-type drug

Central Pain Syndrome Glossary

Anxiety The unpleasant emotional state consisting of psychophysiological responses to anticipation of unreal or imagined danger, ostensibly resulting from unrecognized intrapsychic conflict. Physiological concomitants include increased heart rate, altered respiration rate, sweating, trembling, weakness, and fatigue psychological concomitants include feelings of impending danger, powerlessness, apprehension, and tension. eu Benzodiazepines A two-ring heterocyclic compound consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring. Permitted is any degree of hydrogenation, any substituents and any H-isomer. nih Flumazenil A potent benzodiazepine receptor antagonist. Since it reverses the sedative and other actions of benzodiazepines, it has been suggested as an antidote to benzodiazepine overdoses. nih

Celastrus paniculatus Willd

Withanolides Mechanisms

Have indicated that C. ternatea extract can act as a nootropic, an anxiolytic, an antidepressant and an anticonvulsant and has antistress 185 and anti-inflammatory activities 186 . isolated from the root augmented learning acquisition and memory in both young and old rats 205 . This observation could be explained by a modulatory effect on cholinergic function, since another study with an extract of W. somnifera containing the sitoindosides VII-X and withaferin A (23) resulted in enhanced AChE activity in the lateral septum and globus pallidus and decreased AChE activity in the vertical diagonal band, enhanced muscarinic M1 receptor binding in the lateral and medial septum and the frontal cortices, and increased muscarinic M2 receptor binding sites in cortical regions, when administered to rodents 206 . However, it was not shown to affect GABAa, benzodiazepine receptor binding, or NMDA or amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptor subtypes in this...

What does the research say

Ashwagandha may also have anti-depressant effects. One study demonstrated that daily doses of 20 and 50 mg kg of the withanolide fraction had similar effects to the benzodiazepine drug lorazepam on rat behavior in elevated plus-maze, social interaction and feeding latency in an unfamiliar environment tests.

Fibromyalgia and Widespread Pain

For many patients, previous attempts at improving levels of physical function have been unsuccessful because of large increases in either pain and or fatigue. This leads to a sense of frustration and can lead to hopelessness. It is common for patients with fibromyalgia to be on a large number of different medications. These may include painkillers, including strong opioids, tranquilizers and sleeping tablets. The patient- s problems may indeed be made worse by inappropriate or unhelpful medications. Pain clinic physicians often help patients modify their drug usage. Helping patients with these problems requires considerable skill and patience.

Summary And Recommendations

Clonazepam is another option and also poses minimal risk from the standpoint of organ toxicity. Clonazepam may be useful for radicular pain and pain associated with tumors, such as plexopathy. In addition, clonazepam may be used to supplement other adjuvant drugs. When given at bedtime, the mild sedating effect of clon-azepam can be helpful for patients who have difficulty sleeping because of pain.

S Evidence statements

The reviews of pharmacological interventions also reported mixed effects of the interventions evaluated. Two reviews assessed the effectiveness of antidepressants for the treatment of neuropathic pain,392,393 one of these also included patients with chronic pain.393 Both reviews found that antidepressants were more effective than placebo in the treatment of neuropathic pain.392,393 One of the reviews reported no difference between the different tricyclic antidepressants in terms of efficacy but that these were more effective than the benzodiazepines.392 Three reviews looked at the effectiveness of anticonvulsant drugs in the treatment of chronic pain. Two looked at these drugs in general394,395 and one only looked at gabapentin.396 These reviews reported conflicting results. The first found that generally anticonvulsants were effective for trigeminal neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy, and migraine prophylaxis, but that minor adverse events occurred as often as benefit.395 The second...

TABLE 3023 Suggested Ancillary Studies in Developmentally Disabled Adults

If a change in mental status or delirium has precipitated the evaluation, consider infections, seizures, and drug interactions or toxicities. Check thyroid function, carnitine levels (especially if patient is on valproic acid), and serum drug levels. Anticholinergics, antihistamines, and benzodiazepines are frequently associated with delirium and agitation.

Fertility mortality and comorbidity

Substance abuse is by far the most common comorbid problem among schizophrenic patients(66) and may involve alcohol, stimulants, benzodiazepines, hallucinogens, and antiparkinsonian drugs, as well as caffeine and tobacco. In the WHO 10-country study, (11) a history of alcohol use in the year preceding the first contact was elicited in 57 per cent of the male patients, and in three of the study areas drug abuse (mainly cannabis and cocaine) was reported by 24 to 41 per cent of the patients. Cannabis abuse, which exacerbates the symptoms and may precipitate relapse, was a significant predictor of poor 2-year outcome. The prevalence of cigarette smoking among schizophrenia patients is, on the average, two to three times higher than in the general population, taking sex and age group into account. Recent research on the interactions between the nicotinic receptor and the glutamatergic and dopaminergic systems has led to the hypothesis that smoking in schizophrenic patients could be an...

Pharmacological properties

Apigenin competitively inhibited the binding of flunitrazepam to the central benzodiazepine receptor (Ki 4 M) but had no effect on muscarinic receptors, aradreno-receptors, or the binding of muscimol to GABAa receptors 109 . HPLC fractions of a methanolic extract of matricaria flower were able to displace flunitrazepam from its receptors in rat cerebellar membranes, the ligand RO 5-4864 from peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in rat adrenal gland membranes, and muscimol from GABA receptors in rat cortical membranes. This last activity is mainly due to GABA present in the fractions 23 . Restricted stress-induced increases in plasma ACTH levels in normal and ovariectomized rats were decreased by administration of diazepam and inhalation of matricaria flower oil vapor. Inhaling the vapor induced greater decreases in plasma ACTH levels in ovariectomized rats than treatment with diazepam this difference was not observed in normal rats. Furthermore, the inhalation of matricaria flower oil...

The Nightshade Family Solanaceae

Many nightshades produce poisonous drugs, some of which have medicinal uses. One of the best-known medicinal drug producers is the deadly nightshade of Europe. A drug complex called belladonna is extracted from its leaves. Belladonna was used in the magic potions of the past and also for dilating human pupils for cosmetic purposes. It is now the source of several widely used drugs, including atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine. Atropine is used in shock treatment, for relief of pain, to dilate eyes, and to counteract muscle spasms. Scopolamine is used as a tranquilizer, and hyoscyamine has effects similar to those of atropine. Capsicum, obtained from a pepper, is used as a gastric stimulant and is also a principal ingredient of mace, which is used to repel human or animal assailants. Capsaicin, derived from peppers, is used in ointments for the relief of arthritic and neuropathic pain.

Alzheimers Disease and Alzheimers Dementia

There are few so-called memory tonics available to patients and physicians. At present, the only drug with possible cognitive enhancing effects in AD is tacrine, a centrally acting acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that is thought to partially reverse the decline in cortically projected acetylcholine that results from degeneration of the cholinergic basal forebrain. y The effects of the drug are modest and side effects are significant, particularly when given at higher doses, which tend to be the more effective dosages (typically 30 or 40 ml, four times daily). Unfortunately, only about a fourth of patients tolerate those dosage levels, with nausea, diarrhea, and elevated liver enzymes often being the treatment-limiting side effects. Nonetheless, it can result in functionally important gains in some patients and should be considered in patients with mild to moderate stages of the disease. It should either not be used or be used with great caution in patients with cardiac conduction...

Endocoids and their Importance in Psychopharmacology

Arachidonic Acid Ethanolamide

Natural products have been known to contain pharmacologically active substances that have been exploited by man since antiquity. In addition to the natural products that have been used to treat the physical symptoms of disease, such as atropine derivatives to reduce gastrointestinal spasm and aspirin derivatives to treat pyrexia, several plant extracts have been used specifically for their psychotropic actions. Reference has already been made in Chapter 15 to the opioids, cocaine and the natural psychostimulants, and to the cannabinoids as drugs of abuse. However the purpose of this chapter is to summarize the evidence implicating naturally occurring substances which occur within the mammalian brain and which appear to produce their psychotropic effects by activating specific receptors within the brain. Such substances are termed endocoids and they include the enkephalins and endorphins, which activate specific opioid receptors, the anandamide related compounds, which activate...

Conclusions And Therapeutic Opportunities For The Future

In order for orexin receptor antagonists to be of therapeutic benefit it is implicit that there must be a degree of endogenous orexinergic tone at the orexin receptors. It is already evident that orexin receptor antagonists do not always produce the opposite effect as exogenously administered orexin peptides. For example, OxA elevates blood pressure and heart rate in rats but the OX1R selective antagonist SB-334867 has no haemodynamic effects in its own right.65 The most striking evidence that orexin receptor antagonists can be pharmacologically active when given by themselves comes from experiments showing that SB-334867 reduces food intake and body weight gain while increasing energy expenditure in rodents (see Section 3.1). This suggests that OX1R antagonists may have potential in the treatment of obesity and metabolic disorders. Counter to the envisaged role for orexin receptor agonist to promote arousal in narcoleptics, the most exciting therapeutic prospect for orexin receptor...

Special Challenges for Geriatric Prisoners

An example of a Beer's list medication class that should be avoided in older adults is anticholinergic medication. Many medications have anticholinergic properties including antihistamines (diphenhydramine, hydroxyzine), some benzodiazepines (alprazolam, oxazepam), and some antibiotics (ampicillin, clindamycin). Anticholinergics' myriad side effects in the elderly include falls, delirium (acute confusion), and urinary retention (Landefeld et al., 2004). Given these side effects and their associated costs, it is imperative that prison health care providers know which medications to avoid giving older inmates. Depression and depressive symptoms are common in the geriatric population. The prevalence of major depression in the United States is approximately 1-2 of community-dwelling older adults and is up to 27 for those who have significant depressive symptoms (Landefeld et al., 2004). The prevalence of depression rises among permanently institutionalized nursing home elders 43 have been...

Spasticity Management and Contractures

Baclofen Overdose

Oral medications have been used to treat spasticity in recent years, including benzodiazepines, dantrolene, and baclofen. Their use has been limited by the development of tolerance for dosages, narrow therapeutic ranges, hepatic toxicity, and sedation. Injections of alcohol in the form of nerve-point blocks and botulinium toxin into the muscle also have been used. These treatments are more invasive, can be painful, are of limited duration (3-6 months), and can result in loss of function for a short period of time. They also can be very effective in decreasing spasticity and improving the child's function.

Other Forms of Chorea

The movements are brief, usually lasting less than 3 minutes, and occur many times daily, sometimes up to 100 times a day). y Nonkinesigenic and exertional paroxysmal dyskinesias may also be transmitted as autosomal dominant disorders, and the movements in these forms tend to be more dystonic than choreic in nature. The episodes of dyskinesia are usually more prolonged (lasting 2 minutes to 4 hours) and less frequent (occurring three to five times a day). Attacks are precipitated by alcohol, coffee, fatigue, stress, or excitement. Kinesigenic dyskinesias respond well to anticonvulsant medications such as phenytoin, carbamazepine, or phenobarbital. In contrast, the nonkinesigenic dyskinesias respond poorly to most medical therapy, although some patients improve with clonazepam. y Pathophysiologically, these conditions appear to be an interface between movement disorders and epilepsy, since in some conditions assiduous electrode placement over the frontal and frontocentral regions may...

Dr Tod Mikuriyas International Classification of Diseases ICD Table Ailments Grouped by Body Systems Affected Benefited

3000.00 Anxiety disorder 300.1 Panic disorder 300.3 Obsessive compulsive disorder 303.0 Alcoholism 300.00 Anxiety disorder 300.01 Panic disorder In order for patients, nurses or doctors to understand why any particular drug or treatment works, they need to know about the disease. Cannabis is no exception. The more common medical indications for Cannabis are pain (of many types), nausea, anorexia, elevated intraocular pressure, spasms, cramps and seizures, insomnia, anxiety, cancer and AIDS or HIV symptoms. There are over 100 other symptomatic diseases in which Cannabis has provided clear symptomatic relief. These include opiate or benzodiazepine withdrawal, lupus, scoliosis, amytropic lateral sclerosis (ALS), brain trauma, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), tobacco dependence, hypertension and menopausal symptoms. The list is long.

Answers and Explanations

15. (B) Benzodiazepines are believed to act by potentiating the effects of gamma-aminobu-tyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory amino acid. 36. (B) Buspirone (BuSpar) is an antianxiety agent that, unlike the benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and carbamates, does not produce significant sedative, muscle relaxant, or anticonvulsant effects. (3)

Cytotoxic Drugs

Repeated perfusions over the first 24 hours. Tranquilizers may be of help. Hemorrhagic cystitis and dangerous suppression of bone marrow is exceptional. The pulse is repeated once a month until a good result is achieved. The gap between pulses is increased to 2 months, and then to 3 months, and finally stopped when the disease seems to be in remission. 3) Low dose pulse cyclophosphamide (LDP)7. The method is the same as for PCP, only the dosage of cyclophosphamide is half of it body

Janet L Cummings

5-hydroxytryptophan (See five-hydroxytryptophan). agonist A drug that works by stimulating its receptor (as opposed to an antagonist, which works by blocking receptors). anesthetics Drugs used for general anesthesia. Aristolochia fangchi Also called guang fang ji, an herb marketed over-the-counter for weight loss in products labeled Chinese herbs. aristolochic acid A chemical found in the Chinese herb Aristolochia fangchi, which is sold over-the-counter in various weight-loss products. autonomic nervous system The branch of the nervous system that regulates internal body processes requiring no conscious awareness. barbiturates A class of drugs (including pentobarbital and phenobarbital) used to induce sleep, relieve anxiety, treat certain types of seizures, or for general anesthesia. benzodiazepines A class of drugs (including Valium, Librium, and Xanax) that decrease anxiety and induce sleep by facilitating GABA neurotransmission. carbidopa A prescription drug used to treat...


Contraindications Children under 16, lactation. Cirrhosis, impaired liver and renal function. Special Concerns In geriatric clients with impaired renal or hepatic function, confusion is more likely to occur. Not recommended for children less than 16 years of age. Side Effects GI Diarrhea, pancreatitis (rare), hepatitis, hepatic fibrosis. CNS Dizziness, sleepiness, headache, confusion, delirium, hallucinations, double vision, dysarthria, ataxia. Severely ill clients may manifest agitation, anxiety, depression, disorientation, hallucinations, mental confusion, and psychosis. CV Hypotension and arrhythmias following rapid IV administration. Hema-tologic Agranulocytosis, thrombocy-topenia, hemolytic or aplastic anemia, granulocytopenia. GU Impotence (high doses for prolonged periods of time), gynecomastia (long-term treatment). Dermatologic Exfoliative dermatitis, erythroderma, erythema multiforme. Musculoskeletal Arthral-gia, reversible worsening of joint symptoms with preexisting...

Clinical History

Psychological states at the time of sleep onset are important to assess in patients with insomnia. Patients reporting excessive worries, ruminations over daytime problems, and anxiety may find that despite feeling sleepy, these intrusive thoughts cause alertness and prevent sleep onset. They may feel increased muscle tension. The duration and triggering factor for the insomnia is important to obtain. Patients experiencing transient insomnia related to particular life events may benefit from treatment strategies inappropriate for the patient with chronic, recurrent insomnia. Depression and anxiety are psychiatric disorders that are strongly associated with sleep disturbances. A psychiatric assessment may provide useful clues to the presence of these potentially treatable causes of insomnia. Antiparkinsonian medications may cause vivid dreams and nightmares. The benzodiazepines and barbiturates may suppress SWS, decrease the amount of REM sleep, and exacerbate sleep apnea. With chronic...

Calcium antacid

To date, calcium has not been identified as one of the nutrients that may be directly beneficial in the treatment of HIV AIDS however, it may be beneficial in treating a variety of ailments, and, therefore, have an indirect benefit to persons with HIV AIDS. For example, it is a natural tranquilizer and tends to calm the nerves. The production of energy and the maintenance of the immune system benefit from calcium. Supplements along with vitamin D have a strong preventative effect on col-orectal cancer. Calcium participates in the structuring of DNA and RNA and activates the digestive system. By lowering cholesterol, the mineral is thought to be beneficial in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. It is a recognized aid for muscle cramps in the feet and legs. Arthritis, structural rigidity often caused by depletion of bone calcium, may be helped with regular supplements of calcium, although this has not been proved scientifically. Along with estrogen, it has been successfully used...


Estrogen may moderate mood swings to a limited degree, but it has limited direct effects on mood in many women.1 Estrogen may be helpful in some women with perimenopausal anxiety, irritability, and depression.49 Because the role of estrogen is not well defined, and other proven and efficacious treatment is available, depression may be best treated with antidepressants. Treatment should also include counseling. Depression and PMS respond well to selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), including fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, and citalopram. Because of gender-based pharmacokinetic differences, antidepressant plasma concentrations maybe higher in women.50 Thus, women with depression may require lower dosages of antidepressants than male counterparts. In addition, women need to be asked specifically about sexual side effects, because they generally do not report these unless asked. Anxiety disorders should be treated with medicines indicated for that purpose, including...


The answer is b. (Goldman, 21 e, pp 20-22.) Delirium is a transient global disorder characterized by waxing and waning levels of consciousness, hallucinations, anxiety, restlessness, combative behavior, paranoia, short attention span, autonomic disturbances (tachycardia and diaphoresis), and decreased short-term memory. Patients often worsen in the evening hours ( sundowning ). Risk factors for delirium include Hypoxemia, Infection, Drugs, and Electrolyte abnormalities (HIDE) the mainstay of treatment is to treat the underlying cause. 419. The answer is d. (Fauci, 14 e, pp 42-43.) Risk factors for falls in the elderly are reduced visual acuity, reduced hearing, vestibular dysfunction, peripheral neuropathy, dementia, musculoskeletal disorders, foot disorders (bunions, edema), postural hypotension, alcohol use, and medications (diuretics, sedatives, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, antihypertensives, antiarrhythmics, anticonvulsants).


Meclofenamate (Meclomen) and mefenamic acid (Ponstel) exhibit potency and side effects similar to those of other nonsalicylate NSAIDs. However, both drugs produce serious side effects, have a short duration of action, and are not safe for children. Their use is limited to patients who fail to respond to other treatments. They are analgesic, antipyretic, and antiinflammatory agents indicated for mild to moderate pain, treatment of dysmenorrhea, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthri-tis. These drugs are metabolized via glucuronidation in the liver and excreted via the kidney. Thus, fenamates require normal liver and kidney function for excretion and are contraindicated in patients with either liver or renal failure. Overdose with fenamates leads to seizures that are sometimes insensitive to traditional treatment with benzodiazepines. In cases of overdose with meclofenamate dialysis may be required to restore fluid and electrolyte balance.

Sleep Disorders

Sleep disorders are rather common in the general population and include (1) dyssomnias, (2) parasom-nias, and (3) sleep dysfunction secondary to other neurological, general medical, or psychiatric disorders. Dyssomnias are by far the most common sleep disorders and represent conditions wherein the patient has difficulty either initiating or maintaining sleep some have both syndromes. Both are characterized by chronic irritability, feelings of tiredness, excessive daytime sleepiness, poor concentration, and, in some cases, significant memory impairment. Etiological factors are widely variable and include recent significant stressors, poor sleep hygiene, and disturbances in circadian rhythm. The former is primarily an excessive arousal reaction to stress, which can be treated pharmacologically with arousal modulating agents. Trazodone has long been used to reduce nocturnal arousal and normalize sleep architecture. More recently, Nefazodone has been used similarly and shown to improve...

Adjuvant Analgesics

Anticonvulsant agents are also considered agents of choice in the treatment of a wide variety of neuropathic pain complaints, particularly with lancinating or tic-like pain. The older anticonvulsants (e.g., carbamazepine, phenytoin, and valproic acid) probably act by increasing membrane stability (as seen with seizures). Clonazepam has also been used to treat neuropathic pain, and it acts by enhancing y-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A-receptor-mediated inhibition. Gabapentin, an analog of GABA, has been very popular in the treatment of neuropathic pain, but its action mechanism is not known (38).

Indian hemp Cannabis

Inside-outer Colloquial term for PCP. Insnoad Swedish colloquial term for having lost sense of reality due to drug use. Insolat Secbutabarbital sodium. Insom-rapido Pentobarbital calcium. VolmsomiasNiitraeziepam. Insomin Nitrazepam. Insomnal Phenobarbital. Insomnyl Secobarbital sodium. Insonium Flurazepam or Flurazepam hydro-chloride.

Competency to Drive

Certain medications, as expected, are also important contributors to crash risk. Ray et al. (1992) found that current use of benzodiazepines was statistically significantly associated with injurious crashes among older drivers in Tennessee, at a relative risk of 1.5, whereas current use of cyclic antidepres-


(D) Benzodiazepines A 32-y ear-old woman complains of excessive perspiration, palpitations, and fatigue. On questioning, she admits lo anxiety, difficulty sleeping, and diarrhea. She was diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder by her previous physician and given buspirone, which she is still taking. On examination, you note tachycardia with an irregular rate and shiny, red, indurated skin over both shins. Which of the following is true concerning the most likely diagnosis

Dr Steven Langer

The thyroid gland is a little butterfly-shaped organ at the base of the neck that puts out a teaspoon of hormone a year which affects the metabolism and acts as a cellular carburetor for every cell in the body--from our hair follicles down to our toenails. As such, the thyroid can be implicated in just about any kind of condition you can think of. As for its relationship to psychological disorders, since it plays a role in the metabolism of the nervous system, people who have thyroid disorders have conditions like depression, anxiety, panic attacks, and bipolar disorders. A lot of the symptoms of thyroiditis are psychological symptoms, such as being profoundly depressed. With thyroiditis people get anxiety attacks and panic attacks for no apparent reason. They could be sitting and reading a book. All of a sudden they will develop a cascade of heart palpitations and fearfulness. I've had a number of patients who have been rushed, almost on a monthly basis, to the emergency room to be...


Propoxyphene's actions can be impeded if a person smokes tobacco cigarettes. Propoxyphene can lengthen the time span of effects produced by alprazolam and diazepam. Studies have found that blood levels from a dose of the epilepsy medicine carbamazepine will be higher if a person also takes propoxyphene, possibly high enough to cause harm. Propoxyphene should be used with particular caution if a person is also using alcohol, antidepressants, antihistamines, or tranquilizers. Conceivably the alcohol-propoxyphene combination could seriously impair driving skills, although scientists testing various mental and physical performance effects of the combination found that alcohol had more impact than propoxyphene.


Cannabis lowers blood pressure, dilates the arteries and reduces body temperature an average of one-half degree, thereby relieving stress. Evening cannabis smokers in general report more restful sleep. Using cannabis allows most people a more complete rest with a higher amount of alpha time during sleep as compared with prescription or sleep-inducing patent sedatives. Prescription sleeping pills (the so called legal, safe and effective drugs) are often just synthesized analogs of truly dangerous plants like mandrake, henbane and belladonna. As late as 1991, doctors, pharmacists and drug companies were fighting off new legislation to restrict these often abused compounds. (L.A. Times, April 2, 1991). Unlike Valium, cannabis does not potentiate the effects of alcohol. It is estimated that cannabis could replace more than 50 of Valium, Librium, Thorazine, Stelazine, other -zine drugs and most sleeping pills. It is unconscionable that, over the past two decades, tens of thousands of...

Emergency Panic Remedies

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