The sections on Aetiology and Prevalence, History, Examination and Investigations comprise information from the existing draft (developed by conventional literature review) combined and updated with relevant articles located and appraised according to the following inclusion and exclusion criteria:

Inclusion criteria

Systematic reviews, cross-sectional studies, case series, case reports Adults

Exclusion criteria

Chronic pain

Children and adolescents

Neuropathic pain, somatic referred pain, visceral referred pain, radicular pain, loin and gluteal pain, osteoarthritis, sciatica, degenerative joint and disc disease, aortic aneurysm, pelvic disease, retroperitoneal disease, Paget's disease, hyperparathyroidism, osteomyelitis, infection, neoplasm, fracture, low back pain associated with pregnancy, ankylosing spondylitis Aetiological risk factors

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