Insulin Like Growth Factor

Insulin-like growth factor-1, also known as somatomedin C, was first discovered as a serum factor controlling sulfate incorporation by articular cartilage in vitro. Later studies showed that IGF-1, by promoting the synthesis of type II collagen and aggrecan, induces and maintains the chondrocyte phenotype in vitro. It also promotes chondrocyte survival, but does not act as a mitogen unless combined with FGF-2 or BMP-7 123,126 . Chondrocytes from animals with experimental arthritis and from...

Changes in Matrix Components During Osteoarthritis

Absence of or mutation in any matrix component will result in cartilage that cannot fully resist mechanical loads. Significant defects in type II collagen or aggrecan cause chondrodys-plasias and defective skeletal growth 80,85 as a result, animals do not live long enough to develop OA. However, smaller defects in the type II collagen gene have been linked to early-onset OA in humans 46,96 . In mice created with additional copies of a transgene with a small deletion of type II collagen, the...

Introduction What is Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis (OA) is defined by the American College of Rheumatology as a heterogeneous group of conditions that lead to joint symptoms and signs which are associated with defective integrity of articular cartilage, in addition to related changes in the underlying bone at the joint margins. Osteoarthritis is usually classified as primary or idiopathic when there is no obvious predisposing cause, and secondary when there is some clearly defined predisposing pathology 6 . Idiopathic OA is the...

Info

Hanna FS, Wluka AE, Bell RJ, Davis SR, Cicut-tini FM (2004) Osteoarthritis and the postmenopausal woman epidemiological, magnetic resonance imaging, and radiological findings. Semin Arthritis Rheum 34 631-636. 96. Hannan MT, Anderson JJ, Zhang Y, Levy D, Felson DT (1993) Bone mineral density and knee osteoarthritis in elderly men and women. Arthritis Rheum 36 1671-1680. Harada S-I, Rodan GA (2003) Control of osteoblast function and regulation of bone mass. Nature 423 349-355. Harrison MH,...

The Role of Cytokines in Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis Cytokines

Inflammation and accompanying dysregulated cytokine catabolic activities play key roles in OA pathogenesis in addition to the effects of age and excessive mechanical loading (for review, see 70,74,121 (Fig. 3.2). Osteoarthritis is not considered a classical inflammatory arthropathy, because of the absence of neutrophils in the synovial fluid and the lack of systemic manifestations of inflammation. Nevertheless, synovial inflammation is common in both early and late stages of OA 19 . The...

Contents

v xi 1 The Pathogenesis of Osteoarthritis Helmtrud I. Roach and Simon Tilley 1 2 The Role of Bone in the Development of Osteoarthritis Daniel Lajeunesse and Pascal Reboul 19 and Bone-Derived Factors in Cartilage 4 The Synovium and Its Role in Osteoarthritis Arjen B. Blom and Wim B. van den Berg 65 6 Anabolic Mediators of Cartilage Healing Naoshi Fukui and Linda J. Sandell 97 7 Chondrocyte Hypertrophy and Apoptosis at the Cartilage-Bone Interface Irving M. Shapiro, Christopher S. Adams, Vickram...