1. Smith, M.C.; Sherman, D.M. Goat Medicine; Lea and Febiger: Malvern, PA, 1994.
2. Olcott, M.B. Caprine Herd Health. In Proceedings of Goat Field Day; Langston University, 1995.
3. Pugh, D.G. Sheep and Goat Medicine; WB Saunders: Philadelphia, 2002.
4. Dawson, L.J. General Care of Goats. In Proceedings of Goat Field Day; Langston University, 1998.
5. Mobini, S. Herd Health Management Practices for Goats. In Proceedings of Goat Field Day; Langston University, 1999.
6. Dawson, L.J. Caprine Herd Health Program. In Proceed ings of Goat Field Day; Langston University, 2001.
7. Smith, M.C. Small Ruminants for the Mixed Animal
Table 1 Causative agents, clinical signs, diagnosis, and control measures for infectious diseases of goats
Caseous lymphadenitis is caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis.
Tetanus is caused by C. tetani, which produces spores. These spores release toxin, which affects the nervous system.
Enterotoxemia is caused by C. perfringens types C and D, which produce toxins.
Peripheral swelling of the superficial lymph Presence of a firm to a nodes. Internal lymph nodes and organs could be involved, slightly fluctuant swelling
Decreased body weight and milk production, in the location of lower reproductive efficiency the lymph nodes
Stiffness, difficulty in moving or walking, "saw horse" stance, easily excited to touch or noise, "lockjaw" or difficulty in opening the mouth, salivation, food accumulated in the mouth, prolapse of the third eyelid, seizures or convulse periodically, and later death
Type C affects very young kids and adults with blood-tinged diarrhea, anemia, and later death. Type D affects young kids and is mainly seen as sudden death. Rise in temperature, abdominal pain, depressed, laying down, convulsions, paddling, head thrown straight over the back, and later death. May not have diarrhea. Chronic form seen in the adults; they experience listlessness, off feed, weight loss, intermittent episodes of pasty or loose feces, and milk production down if lactating
Clinical signs, presence of deep wounds or history of castration, disbudding, kidding, etc. Confirm the diagnosis by sending tissues or blood to the lab.
Clinical signs, necropsy, isolating the toxin, impression smears from the intestine, and improvement with intravenous antitoxin
Separate and isolate the affected animals. Proper sanitation of the pens, feeders, water troughs, and equipment. Use individual hypodermic needles. Purchase animals from a noninfected herd. Replacement animals need to be quarantined for at least 60 days. Kids from infected animals should be removed at birth, raised separately on milk replacers or pasteurized milk. Cull animals with multiple abscesses, chronic respiratory disease, and wasting disease. Vaccination could be considered if other methods have failed
Vaccination, surgical procedures such as castration should be carried out in a clean and hygienic manner. Wounds should be kept clean. Proper sanitation of the pens, lots, feeders, etc.
Caprine arthritis encephalitis is caused by a retro virus.
Contagious ecthyma, or sore mouth, is caused by a parapox virus.
Johne's disease is caused by a bacterium
Young kids: ataxic and weak in the rear legs. Cannot get up and later die from affecting the nervous system. Adults: swollen joints, arthritis, and contracted joints. Udder gets hard with no mastitis, and decrease in milk production
Thick scabby sores are seen on the lips, gums, face, ears, coronary band, scrotum, teats, or vulva
Loss of weight, rough hair coat, decrease in milk production, may or may not have diarrhea. Usually seen in animals 3 to 5 years old
Infectious kerato conjunctivitis, or pinkeye, in goats is caused by Mycoplasma conjunctivae or Chlamydia psittaci.
Abortions in goats due to infectious agents: Toxoplasma gondii C. psittaci Salmonellosis (Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella dublin) Brucella melitensis Listeria monocytogenes Leptospirosis (Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae, L. grippotyphosa, L. pomona).
Acute onset, watery eyes, redness of the eye, swelling of the eyelids, photophobia, cloudy cornea with later forming ulcers
Abortions, still births, and birth of weak infected kids. Systemic effects may be seen in the doe with salmonellosis, brucellosis, listeria, and leptospirosis
Clinical signs, serology, Test and cull. Remove the kids from and necropsy their affected mother. Heat-treat the colostrum. Raise the kids on pasteurized milk or milk replacer. Kids should be separated from the adults at birth
Clinical signs, electron microscopy, or immunologic techniques to demonstrate antigen in the scabs
Clinical signs, fecal culture, serology, and lymph node biopsy
Proper sanitation and management of the kidding pens is very essential. Kids removed immediately after kidding and raised on heat-treated colostrum, pasteurized milk, or milk replacer. Blood test every 6 months and remove the affected animals. Kids should not commingle with the adults until they have kidded. In Norway, this disease has been controlled by vaccination
Prevent dusty environment and feed. Proper isolation and quarantine measures for your replacements
Abortion, serology, and histopathology of the fetus and placenta
Proper sanitation, rodent control, clean feed and water supply. Isolating pregnant animals. Avoid overcrowding and stressing of the does. Prevent exposure to barn cats. Do not feed spoiled and poorly fermented silage. Vaccinate for Chlamydia; B. melitensis is controlled by test and slaughter policy
Table 2 Vaccination schedule for infectious diseases of goats
Time to vaccinate
Disease / causative agent
4 to 6 weeks
8 and 12 weeks
30 days prior to breeding 30 days prior to breeding
30 days prior to kidding
C. perfringens C&D
C. tetani toxoid Contagious ecthyma (if a herd problem)
C. perfringens C&D C. tetani toxoid
C. perfringens C&D C. tetani toxoid
Annual or 2 months before the show season Annual
Table 3 Causes, clinical signs, diagnosis, and control measures for metabolic diseases of goats
Floppy kid syndrome
Increased grain in the diet
Thiamine deficiency or low availability of thiamine
Low energy diet or low availability of energy during the last trimester of pregnancy
Depressed, off feed, bloat, grinding teeth, diarrhea, and dehydration Mild bloat, off feed, ataxia, down, hypothermia, ''S '' curved neck, pupils dilated, and muscle twitching Loss of appetite, depressed, no rumen motility, head pressing, aimless walking, blindness, muscle tremors, and hyperexcitable Weak, depressed, poor muscle tone, and down
Depressed, weak, ataxic, and cannot suckle
Clinical signs. Rumen pH drops below 5
Close to or 1 3 weeks after kidding. Mainly seen in dairy goats. Response to in travenous calcium therapy
Symptoms. Response to thiamine treatment
Symptoms. Does carrying multiple fetuses
Response to bicarbonate orally
Gradual increase of grain in the diet
Proper nutrition during the dry period. Cation/anion
[(Na+K)/(cl + S)] balance during the last month of pregnancy
Proper nutrition, good quality roughage, less stress, low sulfates in the ration, and early diagnosis
Proper nutrition and increased energy intake during the last 6 weeks of pregnancy
Supportive care. Correction of electrolyte imbalance or i.v.
Practitioners. In Proceedings of the 70th Western Veteri nary Conference, 1998.
8. Piontkowski, M.D.; Shivvers, D.W. Evaluation of a commercially available vaccine against Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis for use in sheep. JAVMA 1998, 212 (11), 1765 1768.
9. Bowen, J.S. A Practitioner's Approach to Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis. In Proceedings of Goat Field Day; Langston University, 1995. 10. Dawson, L.J. Infectious Abortions in Goats. In Goat Newsletter; E (kika) de la Garza Institute for Goat Research: Spring, 2002.
Tilahun Sahlu Arthur Goetsch
Langston University, Langston, Oklahoma, U.S.A.
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