Alopecia Areata Products Catalog
Renal dialysis transplant thyroid disease Dermatoses alopecia areata Darier's disease lichen planus psoriasis Club-shaped terminal phalanges mandibular hypoplasia, delayed cranial closure dysplastic clavicles atrophy of skin over hands and feet alopecia AR or XR Unusual facies with large nose
Red lunulae may be seen in particularly severe, acute nail involvement in erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, Lyell's syndrome, generalized psoriasis, alopecia areata, systemic lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis and rheumatoid arthritis, among other conditions (Figure 7.21). Red lunulae occasionally seen in heart failure and alopecia areata. Red lunulae occasionally seen in heart failure and alopecia areata.
Producing a gyrate configuration, or to swell in the periphery and flatten in the center (Fig. 6.18) (Mascaro et al. 1997). Some patients develop erythematous, annular lesions on the cheeks and upper extremities imitating the annular type of SCLE, and, recently, a patient with LET following the lines of Blaschko has been reported (Pacheco et al. 2002). LET lesions can also coexist with DLE lesions (Ruiz and Sanchez 1999) and have been reported to mimic alopecia areata when present on the scalp (Werth et al. 1992). However, other nonspecific LE lesions, such as hypopigmentation, mucous membrane ulcers, diffuse alopecia, livedo reticularis, and vasculitis, have never been seen in any patient.
Both exogenous and endogenous retroviruses display a marked variety of interactions with their host and, in a susceptible individual, may be inciting, contributory, or perpetuating factors in the pathogenesis of autoimmune conditions 6 . Studies looking at the role of HERVs have been conducted in most organ-specific and systemic autoimmune conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis, Sjogren syndrome (SS), multiple sclerosis (MS), alopecia areata, type I diabetes, primary biliary cirrhosis, essential thrombocythemia (ET), and Graves disease. Although disease associations have been established, there is as yet no proven definite causative association between HERVs and disease 7 . Evidence for a relationship between HERVs and autoimmune diseases is
Participation of collagenase-3 in the process should be secondary to other abundantly expressed MMPs.64 In contrast, studies of MMP expression during rat skin wound healing have revealed that collagenase-3 is one of the enzymes highly expressed throughout this remodeling process.65 A more detailed in situ RNA hybridization analysis on skin wound sections after cutaneous incision revealed that collagenase-3 was intensely expressed in the epithelial basal cell layer and the hair follicle sheath, but not the dermis. This data suggests that collagenase-3, in coordination with other MMPs, contributes to the restoration of connective tissue during rat skin wound healing. The extension of these observations to human tissues would lend new insights and perspectives into the physiological significance of collagenase-3.
In Werners syndrome, the skin is tightly stretched over the underlying bones.112 There is marked loss of subcutaneous tissue, and ulcerations occur over the legs. Severe coronary atherosclerosis often results in MI at an early age. Physical findings in diabetes mellitus may include tight skin and necrobiosis diabeticorum, an atrophy of the skin of the lower extremities characterized by ovoid plaques with central telangectasia and a violet, undurated perimeter. Progeria is a rare disorder in which the face is small and prematurely aged, the eyes bulge, and the nose is beaked. Severe atherosclerosis with early MI is a common cause of death in early life.113 A diagonal earlobe crease and short tufts of ear-canal hair curiously have been associated with coronary artherosclerosis.114 There is a modest correlation between male-pattern baldness involving the vertex of the scalp in men under 55 years of age and an increased risk of MI.115 Patients resemble those with Marfan's syndrome because...
Arthralgias are relatively common (40 of patients) (Christianson et al. 1956 Uziel et al. 1994b). Synovitis has been documented mainly in deep forms (Peterson et al. 1997). Associated pulmonary and esophageal involvement can occur. Routine testing revealed that 7 41 (17 ) patients had esophageal dysmotility and 9 53 (17 ) had abnormal gas transfer on lung function testing. These abnormalities were asymptomatic over 4yrs follow up in all but 2 of the patients (Dehen et al. 1994). In a series of 16 cases of subcutaneous morphea, 4 10 and 3 10 patients investigated had asymptomatic abnormal lung function and esophageal dysmotility respectively (Person and Su 1979). This suggests that the frequency of internal involvement may be underestimated. Other associated findings include carpal tunnel syndrome (Winkelmann et al. 1982) and vertebral anomalies (in particular spina bifida) present in 47 of 68 patients examined radiographically (Christianson et al. 1956). Associated cutaneous diseases...
In HIV hair loss can result from use of drugs for treatment of the virus in some individuals. Alopecia also occurs in other diseases that use similar strong chemotherapy. Other types of alopecia are caused by a variety of skin and hair follicle diseases. They can all occur in men, women, and children.
The main clinical sign is self-injurious behavior resulting in tissue loss. Enzyme activity of HPRT can be assayed by radiochemical methods from dried blood spots, cultured skin fibroblasts, and hair follicle cells in probands and suspected female carriers. Biochemical analysis must be confirmed by molecular genetic analysis, particularly for female carriers. The entire HPRT locus has been sequenced, and the mutations in Lesch-Nyhan disease are extremely heterogeneous. The majority are detected by polymerase chain reaction-based techniques, usually amplification of genomic DNA and direct sequencing. In a small percentage, Southern blot analysis using HPRT complementary DNA as a probe is necessary to detect translocations or duplications.
Periodontal diseases can be treated with a mixture of EO's, among them lavender oil (Yamahara et al, 1994 Sysoev et al, 1990). An immunotoxicity assessment of food flavouring ingredients indicated that the majority of the compounds tested did not modulate the cellmediated or humoral immune response (Gaworski et al., 1994). Linalool was shown to penetrate the ex-vivo porcine oral mucosa in Franz' cells very easily (Ceschel et al, 1997). Lavender oil is suitable for prevention and treatment of decubitus ulcers as well as of insect bites, athletes foot and skin rash (Hartwig, 1996 Karita, 1996). This oil can also be used for the topical treatment of acne and dilated pores and for the prevention of facial scarring and blemishes of the face and body (Anon, 1997a,b). The EO of lavender is also a component of a mixture which is suitable as a hair growth stimulant and for the treatment of Alopecia areata (Betourne, 1995 Hay et al,
Many other diseases are associated with autoimmune thyroid disease in adults but rather few studies have examined these specifically in children 57 . Pernicious anaemia is rare in the young, but in 129 children, mean age 9.7 years, with autoimmune thyroid disease, parietal cell antibodies were present in 30 , and almost half of these had elevated gastric levels 58 . In 80 Kuwaiti children aged less than 12 years with alopecia areata, 17.5 had some evidence biochemical evidence or positive thyroid autoantibodies 59 . Thyroid autoim-munity is also more common than expected in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, and 25 of the relatives of such patients have autoimmune thyroid disease 60 .
Occasionally, SCLE lesions may present with an appearance of erythema multiforme, which can simulate the appearance of Rowell's syndrome (erythema multiforme-like lesions occurring in patients with SLE in the presence of anti-La SSB antibodies) (Sontheimer, 1985b Rowell et al., 1963). In 1998, Lyon et al. (1998) reported two cases of delayed diagnosis of SCLE because of the clinical and histologic similarities between SCLE and erythema multiforme. Furthermore, several LE-non-specific skin manifestations have been described in patients with SCLE (Sontheimer, 1989 Parodi et al., 2000) including non-scarring alopecia, livedo reticularis, periungual teleangiect-asias, and Raynaud's phenomenon (Sontheimer, undersurface of the scale ('the carpet tack sign'). Teleangiectasia and hyperpigmentation can replace the active inflammation, and the lesions may give a poikilodermatous appearance. The DLE plaques are generally progressive, and resolution of the lesions leaves more or less evident...
Serum levels of creatinine phosphokinase and markedly improved clinical signs (Saadeyh, 2000). In a recent case report, etanercept also significantly reduced disease activity of a patient with pemphigus vulgaris during a 16 wk treatment (Lin et al., 2005). In contrast, etanercept (50mg wk) was not effective in an open-label study of 17 patients with moderate to severe alopecia areata (Strober et al., 2005) confirming an anectodal report of a patient with RA receiving etanercept and in whom alopecia areata recurred (Posten and Swan, 2005). Moreover, a pilot study with etanercept in 15 patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome failed to demonstrate any effects on sicc symptoms, glandular functions, and histologic findings (Zandbelt et al., 2004).
In the UK, the Human Genetics Commission and GeneWatch have both pursued complaints about claims made in advertising for (alleged) genetic services and products. Hogarth et al. (2005) report that the Commission complained to the UK Advertising Standards Authority in 2003 about an advertisement about a 'Genetic Hair' product that falsely implied it used genetic technology to treat hair loss. The Advertising Authority upheld
A broad spectrum of other cutaneous manifestations has been described in pSS including angular cheilitis, eyelid dermatitis, vitiligo and alopecia (Bernacchi et al., 2004). Angular cheilitis has been described as recurrent, symmetrical erythemato-squamous infiltrated lesion, often itching and fis-suring and it is more common in primary than in secondary variants. Xerostomia may be a predisposing factor for the development of angular cheilitis (Bernacchi et al., 2004). Eyelid dermatitis is defined by the presence of erythematous, infiltrated and lichenificated lesions of the upper and or lower eyelids and it is associated with itching and foreign body sensation. It has been hypothesized that ocular dermatosis may not be a simple consequence of contact sensitization, but also the result of continuous rubbing of the periorbital area due to xerophthalmia (Bernacchi et al., 2004). Alopecia areata has also been described in pSS as well as in other autoimmune diseases, and it has been...
With single beta-ray exposures of the back of the rat, radiation induces a wide variety of tumor types, most of which resemble the differentiation patterns of various parts of the hair follicle the sebaceous glands, the external sheath, the hair germ, and the squamous keratinization pattern (squamous carcinomas) of the upper part of the hair follicle or the surface epidermis (42). There are also tumors whose cells are undifferentiated that arise from the hair follicles and from the surface epithelium. All of these tumor types are seen in humans, but with radiation of the scalp most of the tumors are of the basal cell variety squamous carcinomas arise from irradiation of relatively nonhaired parts like the hands. Squamous tumors are the only type induced in the mouse skin with radiation (43). Skin tumors in the mouse therefore have a more limited range of differentiation than in either the rat or human. The dose-response pattern in the rat does not fit any simple formulation, linear...
Staphylococcal infection results in acute inflammation with recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Vascular compromise and tissue necrosis lead to abscess formation. Localized staphylococcal infections of the skin without rash are associated with poor hygiene, minor trauma, maceration, and underlying skin disorders. They tend to occur around the hair follicle. The conditions include folliculitis, furuncles, carbuncles, impetigo, hydradenitis suppurativa, mastitis, and wound infections. Advancing pyoder-mas include cellulitis, lymphangitis, lymphadenitis, and fasciitis. Local care of these conditions is mandatory with gentle cleansing and appropriate dressings to prevent spread of infectious material. Fluctuant areas should be surgically drained. Systemic antibiotic therapy is warranted when fever or systemic symptoms develop lesions are large, numerous, or spreading the face is involved or if the patient has underlying medical problems such as valvular heart disease.
Involvement may occur in 1 to 5 of patients. Small indentations of the dorsal nail plate occur when psoriasis affects the proximal nail matrix (which produces the dorsal nail plate). This is called pitting of the nails. Nail pitting is probably the most common nail finding in psoriasis but is not pathognomonic. Pitting of the nails may be seen also with alopecia areata or eczema and without other skin disease or internal disease.
Sex hormones control tissue growth and reproduction. Male sex hormones are testosterone and 5a-dihydrotestosterone, also known as androgens, which are secreted by the testes. The primary male hormone, testosterone, is responsible for the development of secondary sex characteristics during puberty. They also promote muscle growth. The two most important female sex hormones are oestradiol and oestrone, also known as oestrogens (estrogens). They are responsible for the development of female secondary sex characteristics.
There are many other dermatoses with a putative psychosomatic component, such as urticaria, alopecia areata and other psychological effects upon skin, like delayed wound healing (Augustin & Maier, 2003) requiring further investigation. The pathways of stress-skin interaction are becoming clearer and with them a further recognition that the clinical beliefs long held by dermatologists and psychologists, that stress influences disease, are being supported by objective immune measurement. However, easy clinical monitoring of the effects of psychological intervention upon the immune system with markers, such as levels of a cytokine (i.e. IL-6) are still propositions rather than practicalities. The value of psychological therapies in dermatological medicine is not in doubt although, as in the past, the establishment of measureable immune responses in tandem with clinical improvement to psychological therapies should convert more of the sceptics.
The thyroid gland is a little butterfly-shaped organ at the base of the neck that puts out a teaspoon of hormone a year which affects the metabolism and acts as a cellular carburetor for every cell in the body--from our hair follicles down to our toenails. As such, the thyroid can be implicated in just about any kind of condition you can think of. As for its relationship to psychological disorders, since it plays a role in the metabolism of the nervous system, people who have thyroid disorders have conditions like depression, anxiety, panic attacks, and bipolar disorders. If a person's metabolism is hypo-functioning, everything is going to be slow. In a book I wrote called Solve the Riddle of Illness, I explain why upwards of 40 percent of the population may have subclinical hypothyroidism and not detect it by the traditional blood chemistry work that's done at their general practitioner's office. The symptoms of low thyroid include weakness dry coarse skin slow speech coarse hair...
The therapeutic application of DAB389IL-2 is not limited to the treatment of T-cell derived malignant disease. DAB389IL-2 is a potential therapeutic for any disease where the underlying etiology is mediated by activated T cells, such as many autoimmune diseases. To date, the clinical studies conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Ontak for the treatment of autoimmune disease have been limited to psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Common examples of other T lymphocyte mediated diseases include chronic inflammatory diseases such as atopic eczema, lichen planus, alopecia areata, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erthematosus (SLE), myasthenia gravis, Grave's disease, and graft versus host disease (Livolsi et al., 1994). Taken in aggregate, autoimmune disease is the most prevalent human disease (Murphy and vanderSpek, 2000). The presentation of autoimmune disease ranges
Multiple Normal increase with age after early adulthood (Figures 3.1, 3.3, 3.4) With all causes of thin nail plates Lichen planus (Figure 3.5) Rheumatoid arthritis Graft-versus-host disease Psoriasis Darier's disease Poor circulation Collagen vascular diseases Radiation Frostbite Alopecia areata Nail-patella syndrome _Systemic amyloidosis_
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