Ways to Reduce Allergies

51 Ways to Reduce Allergies

51 Ways to Reduce Allergies

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Allergy Relief

This easy-to-read guide contains every piece of information you will EVER need to beat allergy, and get the relief from allergic reactions that you have always needed. Sniffing, itching, and watery eyes are NOT a natural part of life, and they ARE something that you can get rid of! Don't sit around feeling miserable and wishing you were feeling better when there are solutions to your problems! You don't have to pay HUGE amounts of money to a doctor for expensive medicines when this book can give you the tools to get rid of allergy symptoms once and for all. We are so sure that it will help you that we give a 60 day money-back guarantee if it doesn't help you. That's how sure we are that your symptoms will be GONE. Breathe easy; help is on the way! Order now to get the relief of allergy symptoms you deserve.

Allergy Relief Overview

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Allergies Food What Are Food Allergies

Various types of food allergies or food sensitivities (characterized by symptoms, but not confirmed by laboratory tests) can maintain the body's inflammatory response at a high idle. These allergies can exacerbate symptoms of other inflammatory diseases, such as asthma and rheumatoid arthritis, or raise blood pressure and blood sugar levels. Occasionally they can completely mimic the symptoms of other diseases. There are several leading causes of food allergies, and they may intertwine. Physicians have traditionally recognized only acute allergic reactions, such as when a person develops a rash after eating shellfish or strawberries. However, most cases of food allergies may be more subtle and difficult to diagnose. As ironic as it might seem, some people actually become addicted to a food that causes an allergic reaction. This allergy addiction may develop as part of the body's response to a commonly consumed allergen. During these reactions, the body releases endorphins, substances...

Food Allergies and Sensitivities

Food sensitivities occur when a component of the diet triggers an allergic reaction or an abnormal, overzealous immune response.1415 Food sensitivities can cause histamine-medi-ated allergic reactions resulting in itching, swelling, and hives. They can also trigger autoimmune reactions, where immune cells activated by exposure to the food component cross-react with and harm the body's own tissues. Sensitivity can develop to foods or food additives and can produce a wide variety of symptoms. Symptoms can be confined to the digestive tract, such as bloating, cramping, diarrhea, or irritable bowel syndrome.1,15 They can also occur in parts of the body far away from the digestive tract, such as the joints (arthritis), skin (swelling and hives) and brain (headache).1,4,15 Symptoms can occur immediately after eating the food, or may be delayed for hours.

Treatment of Food Allergies and Intolerances

The major mode of treatment for food allergies and intolerances is for the person to avoid consuming the food or foods that seem to cause health problems. This involves a high degree of dietary awareness and careful food selection. When foods are eliminated from the diet, it is important to ensure the nutritional adequacy of the diet, and some individuals may need to take dietary supplements. There are some food intolerances, such as lactose intolerance, where individuals may be able to reduce the amount of the food consumed and not totally eliminate it from the diet. People with lactose intolerance do not have to completely eliminate milk products, though they must reduce their intake of lactose (milk sugar) to a manageable level. see also Additives and Preservatives. Koerner, Celide B., and Munoz-Furlong, Anne (1998). Food Allergies. Minneapolis, MN Chronimed. Metcalfe, Dean D. Sampson, Hugh A. and Simon, Richard A. (1997). Food Allergy Adverse Reactions to Foods and Food Additives....

Clinical aspects of food allergy and food intolerance 1431 Symptoms

In the case of food allergy, late reactions seldom occur. The clinical symptoms of allergic food reactions are listed in Table 14.2. The oropharynx and gastrointestinal tract are the initial sites of exposure to food antigens. Symptoms such as edema and itching of the mouth often occur. However, these reactions may be transient and are not necessarily followed by other symptoms. In some people, certain fruits, nuts, and vegetables cause oral symptoms only, while in others a more extensive reaction is seen. The quantity of the offending food also plays a role in the gravity and extent of the reaction, although in Table 14.2 Symptoms of food allergy principle a small amount of a certain food can readily cause a response. Sometimes the allergic reaction only develops if the food intake is followed by exercise. This is referred to as exercise-induced food allergy. Hypotension and shock are life-threatening consequences of a food-allergic reaction. Generally, the reaction is accompanied by...

Dietary Changes and Nutrients That Can Help

It is best to avoid foods that trigger allergic reactions. In addition, a rotation diet, in which the same food families are eaten only once every four days, may reduce the chances of future allergies developing. Avoiding an allergenic food for six months to a year sometimes allows the immune system to recover and not react to the problem food, as long as it is not consumed too often. Several studies have found that low intake of fish and fish oils, or high intake of refined oils (such as margarine) are associated with a wide range of allergylike symptoms, rheumatoid arthritis, and asthma. Eating more fish and taking omega-3 fish oil supplements are likely to help, assuming that you are not allergic to the fish. Sometimes concomitant allergies magnify a reaction. Concomitant allergies are a little like binary weapons, both parts being relatively in

Vitamin E to Extinguish the Flames of Inflammation

For example, vitamin E lowers levels of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 and reduces the activity of various types of adhesion molecules that promote inflammation throughout the body. In fact, vitamin E may be the single most important nutrient for lowering CRP levels. It should therefore not come as a surprise that, in addition to reducing the risk of heart disease, vitamin E is beneficial in Alzheimer's disease, arthritis, allergies, cancer, and many other inflammatory diseases. This chapter will focus on its emerging role as the premier anti-inflammatory vitamin.

Who Needs a Nutritional Supplement

On the other hand, if his or her diet is consistently imbalanced then that person's average daily intake for one or more essential nutrients will probably end up below recommendations. For instance, if a person doesn't eat fish or other seafood regularly, then they might not be achieving recommended levels for an essential fatty acid. Or, if a person doesn't tolerate or like milk and certain dairy foods, they might not achieve his or her AI for calcium and vitamin D on a regular basis. Therefore, unrelenting food preferences, food intolerance, and allergies, or limited availability of certain foods can certainly necessitate the consideration of a nutrition supplement. In addition, reduced calorie intakes to lose weight can often lead to inadequate intakes of one or more essential nutrients by reducing the volume of food in general or limiting the intake of certain types of foods.

Milk and Milk Products

Milk allergy can be a trigger of asthma, eczema, arthritis, and other symptoms.26 A milk allergy is almost always a reaction to the proteins in cow's milk, whereas lactose intolerance is a reaction to the lactose. Therefore, unlike lactose-intolerant individuals, people with a milk allergy must often avoid all milk products, including yogurt and cheese.

What Else Might Help

Many studies point to the apparent role of allergylike food sensitivities in rheumatoid arthritis. These adverse reactions to food can ramp up immune activity and inflammation. Dairy products and gluten-containing grains (such as wheat, rye, and barley) are among the most common food allergens, and studies have found that their avoidance eases arthritic symptoms, including morning stiffness and the number of swollen joints in many people, as well as reducing C-reactive protein levels. The elimi nation of allergenic foods may explain why fasting and gluten-free vegetarian diets help some people with rheumatoid arthritis.

Immune Mediated Diseases Correlations

Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, or IMIDs, is another term, which is used to describe immune-mediated diseases associated with inflammatory pathogenesis mechanisms. IMIDs are characterized by immune dysregulation that results in acute or chronic inflammation, causing organ or tissue damage. One causal manifestation of immune deregulation is the inappropriate expression of proinflammatory cyto-kines, such as IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-a as well as Th1 Th2 cytokine disbalance leading to pathological consequences. This is in agreement with the cytokine theory of disease, which states that an overproduction of cytokines can cause the clinical manifestations of disease (Nathan 2002 Frieri 2003 Elenkov et al. 2005 Tracey 2005). For instance, Th1-associated IMIDs include rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, multiple sclerosis, SLE, type I diabetes mellitus, psoriasis, sarcoidosis, an-kylosing spondylitis, uveitis, and pathologic conditions associated with lung transplantation. Th2-associated...

Preadministration Assessment

Before administering an NSAID, it is important for the nurse to determine if the patient has any history of allergy to aspirin or any other NSAID. The nurse determines if the patient has a history of gastrointestinal bleeding, hypertension, peptic ulceration, or impaired hepatic or renal function. If so, the nurse notifies the primary health care provider before administering an NSAID.

Decision Support Systems in Medicine

To the first class of diseases, diagnosed with the highest degree of certainty (sometimes with total certainty), belong diseases that are, under current medical knowledge, well defined, with known etiology and clear clinical manifestation that is not changed by the type of individual or external conditions. This class includes major anatomic deviations, some inherited diseases and injuries. The second class involves diseases with known and well-defined etiology, but with different clinical presentation in individuals and influenced by external conditions. This class includes malnutrition, microbiological infections, and allergic reactions to given substances and poisonings. In the third class are diseases of the descriptive type, where something is known about etiology or the general type of a pathologic reaction of the organism. The name of the diagnosis is derived from a description of the principal symptoms and signs, e.g. liver cirrhosis, essential hypertension. The fourth class...

Are there any illnesses or medical conditions that are associated with osteoporosis

Some illnesses, such as hyperthyroidism and Cushing's syndrome, increase the speed with which bone is broken down. Other illnesses, such as cystic fibrosis and celiac disease, interfere with bone formation by impeding the body's absorption or production of the nutrients needed for bone development. In fact, 3 to 4 of those with osteoporosis have gluten intolerance, the allergy to wheat that occurs in celiac disease. People with gluten intolerance cannot absorb the correct amount of calcium and Vitamin D from their intestines. One of the problems is that many people have minor symptoms and do not even know they have an allergy to wheat. Gluten intolerance can also occur later in life.

[aldesLOOkin Pregnancy Category C

Respiratory Pulmonary congestion, dyspnea, pulmonary edema, respiratory failure, tachypnea, pleural effusion, wheezing, apnea, pneumothorax, hemoptysis. Oral Stomatitis, glossitis. GI N& V, diarrhea, anorexia, GI bleeding (sometimes requiring surgery), dyspepsia, constipation, intestinal perforation, intestinal ileus, pancreatitis. CNS Changes in mental status (may be an early indication of bacteremia or early bacterial sepsis), dizziness, sensory dysfunction, disorders of special senses (speech, taste, vision), syncope, motor dysfunction, coma, seizure. GU Oliguria or anuria, proteinu-ria, hematuria, dysuria, impaired renal function requiring dialysis, urinary retention, urinary frequency. Hepatic Jaundice, ascites, hepatomegaly. He-matologic Anemia, thrombocytope-nia, leukopenia, coagulation disorders, leukocytosis, eosinophilia. Dermatologic Pruritus, erythema, rash, dry skin, exfoliative dermatitis, purpura, petechiae, urticaria, alopecia. Musculoskeletal Arthralgia,...

Adverse Reactions

Iron salts occasionally cause gastrointestinal irritation, nausea, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, headache, backache, and allergic reactions. The stools usually appear darker (black). Iron dextran is given by the parenteral route. Hypersensitivity reactions, including fatal anaphy-lactic reactions, have been reported with the use of this form of iron. Additional adverse reactions include soreness, inflammation, and sterile abscesses at the intramuscular (IM) injection site. Intravenous (IV) administration may result in phlebitis at the injection site. When iron is administered via the IM route, a brownish discoloration of the skin may occur. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis may experience an acute exacerbation of joint pain, and swelling may occur when iron dextran is administered.

Contraindications Precautions And Interactions

The miscellaneous GI drugs are given with caution to patients with a known hypersensitivity to the drugs. In addition mesalamine, olsalazine, and sulfasalazine are contraindicated in patients who have hypersensitivity to the sulfonamides and salicylates or intestinal obstruction, and in children younger than 2 years. There is a possible cross-sensitivity of mesalamine, olsalazine, and sulfasalazine with furosemide, sulfonylurea antidiabetic drugs, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Misoprostol is contraindicated in those with an allergy to the prostaglandins and during pregnancy (Pregnancy Category X) and lactation.

Discharge And Home Maintenance Guidelines

Ensure that the patient understands the need to rest every hour, space work out over several days, and get at least 8 hours of sleep at night. Ensure that the patient knows whom to call in the event of sudden severe pain (as in a subluxation) or general worsening of the existing condition. Determine whether a home care agency needs to evaluate the home for safety equipment, such as rails and grab bars, and whether ongoing supervision is required. Instruct patients on salicylates that they may need periodic laboratory monitoring of liver and kidney functioning and that they should consider drug interactions. Review patient medication regimen for interactions with salicylates. Some drugs that potentially are affected by salicylates include anticoagulants, corticosteroids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), urine acidifiers, furosemide, para-aminobenzoic acid, certain antacids, phenobarbital, methotrexate, sulfonylureas, insulin, beta-adrenergic blockers, spironolactone, and...

Conditions That May Simulate Common Urticaria

Angioedema presents as massive soft tissue edema of the face, genitalia, or soft tissues around joints. It may occur with common urticaria or as an isolated symptom in the context of a type I allergic reaction, pseudoallergic reaction, or rarely on a recurring basis with chronic urticaria. Oral, pharyngeal, or laryngeal edema may lead to asphyxia. Treat as described for anaphylaxis in the section for acute common urticaria. The very rare syndromes of hereditary angioedema normally do not present as common hives and do not enter into this differential. Contact urticaria occurs at the site of skin exposure to the offending contactant, and because the reaction is immediate, the cause is readily apparent. This reaction may be a true type I allergic reaction or may be nonimmunologic due to mediator release from stings, bites, or absorption of histamine-releasing chemicals. In either type, a generalized reaction may occur due to sufficient absorption.

Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs

Bursitis, acute painful shoulder, syn-ovitis, tendinitis, or tenosynovitis. Mild to moderate pain including primary dysmenorrhea, episiotomy pain, strains and sprains, postextraction dental pain. Primary dysmenor-rhea. Ophthalmically to inhibit intraoperative miosis, for postoperative inflammation after cataract surgery, and for relief of ocular itching due to seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. Contraindications Most for children under 14 years of age. Lactation. Individuals in whom aspirin, NSAIDs, or iodides have caused hy-persensitivity, including acute asthma, rhinitis, urticaria, nasal polyps, bronchospasm, angioedema or other symptoms of allergy or anaphylaxis. Special Concerns Clients intolerant to one of the NSAIDs may be intolerant to others in this group. Use with caution in clients with a history of GI disease, reduced renal function, in geriatric clients, in clients with intrinsic coagulation defects or those on anticoagulant therapy, in compromised cardiac function, in...

Classification Alphabetaadrenergic blocking agent

Side Effects CV Bradycardia, postural hypotension, dependent or peripheral edema, AV block, extrasystoles, hypertension, hypotension, palpitations, peripheral ischemia, syncope, angina, cardiac failure, myocardial ischemia, tachycardia, CV disorder. CNS Dizziness, headache, somnolence, insomnia, ataxia, hypesthesia, paresthesia, vertigo, depression, nervousness, migraine, neuralgia, paresis, amnesia, confusion, sleep disorder, impaired concentration, abnormal thinking, paranoia, emotional lability. Body as a whole Fatigue, viral infection, rash, allergy, asthenia, malaise, pain, injury, fever, infection, somnolence, sweating, sudden death. Oral Dry mouth. GI Diarrhea, abdominal pain, biliru-binemia, N& V, flatulence, anorexia, dyspepsia, melena, periodontitis, increased hepatic enzymes, GI hemorrhage. Respiratory Rhinitis, pharyngitis, sinusitis, bronchitis, dyspnea, asthma, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, respiratory alkalosis, dyspnea, respiratory disorder, URTI, coughing. GU UTI,...

Kawasaki Disease Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome

The differential diagnosis includes drug allergy, toxic epidermal necrolysis, staphylococcal toxin-mediated syndromes, erythema multiforme, and scarlet fever. The etiologic speculations include a hyperimmune response to a variety of infections, a viral syndrome, allergic or toxic response to pollutants, drugs, toxic agents, and a possibility of a rickettsial disease.

Didanosine ddI dideoxyinosine

Hematologic Leuko-penia, granulocytopenia, thrombo-cytopenia, microcytic anemia, hemorrhage, ecchymosis, petechiae. Der-matologic Rash, pruritus, herpes simplex, skin disorder, sweating, eczema, impetigo, excoriation, erythema. Musculoskeletal Asthenia, myo-pathy, arthralgia, arthritis, myalgia, muscle atrophy, decreased strength, hemiparesis, neck rigidity, joint disorder, leg cramps. CV Chest pain, hypertension, hypotension, migraine, palpitation, peripheral vascular disorder, syncope, vasodilation, arrhythmias. Body as a whole Chills, fever, infection, allergic reaction, pain, abscess, cellulitis, cyst, dehydration, malaise, flu syndrome, numbness of hands and feet, weight loss, alopecia. Respiratory Pneumonia, dyspnea, asthma, bronchitis, increased cough, rhinitis, rhinorrhea, epistaxis, laryngitis, decreased lung function, pharyngitis, hypoventilation, sinusitis, rhonchi, rales, congestion, interstitial pneumonia, respiratory disorders. Ophthalmic Blurred vision,...

The Dietary Causes of Inflammation

Dietary Fatty Acids and Allergy. Annals of Medicine 31 (1999) 282-287. Neuman, I., H. Nahum, and A. Ben-Amotz. Prevention of Exercise-Induced Asthma by a Natural Isomer Mixture of B-Carotene. Annals of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology 82 (1999) 549-553. Lycopene, A Natural Antioxidant. Allergy 55 (2000) 1184-1189.

Transient Tenosynovitis of the

Transient Toxic Synovitis

Acute transient tenosynovitis of the hip is the most common cause of hip pain in children less than 10 years of age (peak, 3 to 6 years). There is a boy-to-girl predominance that is variously described as 3 2 to 5 1. The right hip is somewhat more commonly affected than the left, and the condition is bilateral in 5 percent of cases. The etiology of the condition is not known, although trauma, viral and bacterial infection, and allergy (hypersensitization) have been proposed by authors to explain the condition.

Classification Anticonvulsant

Doped-up sensation, suicidal tendencies, psychoses. Oral Dry mouth and throat, dental abnormalities, gingivitis, glossitis, gum hemorrhage, stomatitis, taste loss, unusual taste, increased salivation. GI Most commonly N& V. Also, dyspepsia, constipation, increased appetite, abdominal pain, diarrhea, anorexia, flatulence, thirst, gastroenteritis, hemorrhoids, bloody stools, fecal incontinence, hepatomegaly. CV Hypertension, vasodilation, hypotension, angina pectoris, peripheral vascular disorder, palpitation, tachycardia, migraine, murmur. Musculoskeletal Myalgia, fracture, tendinitis, arthritis, joint stiffness or swelling, positive Romberg test. Respiratory Rhinitis, pharyngitis, coughing, pneumonia, epistaxis, dyspnea, ap-nea. Dermatologie Pruritus, abrasion, rash, acne, alopecia, eczema, dry skin, increased sweating, urticaria, hirsutism, seborrhea, cyst, herpes simplex. Body as a whole Weight increase, back pain, peripheral edema, asthenia, facial edema, allergy, weight...

Facet Joints in Spinal Pain

Facet Joint Injection Side Effects

Facet joint blockade may be requested to confirm a suspected diagnosis of facet-mediated pain, to treat a symptomatic synovial cyst, as a precursor to possible medial branch neurotomy, or for management of chronic facet-mediated spinal pain.10-12 Contraindications are those typical for any injection procedure specifically impaired coagulation, active infection, or allergy to the medications to be used. Levels to be injected are selected on the basis of specific request, physical symptoms (pain diagram), and imaging studies. It is often difficult to localize pain to a single level, and several joints (unilateral or bilateral) may be injected at the same setting, particularly for therapeutic purposes. As with all spinal injections, the procedure, potential risks, and possible outcomes are discussed with the patient, and informed consent is obtained. Potential risks discussed with the patient should include allergic reaction, transient postprocedural pain flare-up, bleeding, and...

The Cascade of Inflammatory Signaling

The quality of an individual's adaptive immune system can be evaluated through the balance of inflammatory cytokines it is producing. A healthy immune system is both balanced and dynamic - it should be balanced between Th1 and Th2 activity, switching back and forth between the two as needed. A failure of the Th1 arm of the immune system and an overactive Th2 arm is implicated in a wide variety of chronic illnesses, including autoimmune conditions, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, candidiasis, allergies, multiple chemical sensitivities, blood sugar regulatory problems (including diabetes), and cancer. Likewise, overexpression of Th1- and cell-specific immunity can occur, leading to a subset of autoimmune disturbances. A disturbed gastrointestinal terrain can serve as an unseen 'motor' of inflammation, leading to a cycle of inflammatory signaling. There is a complex balance that exists between the indigenous flora and the adjacent immune system of the gut...

MHC and Disease Susceptibility

Some HLA alleles occur at a much higher frequency in those suffering from certain diseases than in the general population. The diseases associated with particular MHC alleles include autoimmune disorders, certain viral diseases, disorders of the complement system, some neurologic disorders, and several different allergies. The association between HLA alleles and a given disease may be quantified by determining the frequency of the HLA alleles expressed by individuals afflicted with the disease, then comparing these data with the frequency of the same alleles in the general population. Such a comparison allows calculation of relative risk (see Table 7-4). A relative risk value of 1 means that the HLA allele is expressed with the same frequency in the patient and general populations, indicating that the allele confers no increased risk for the disease. A relative risk value substantially

Classification Antidepressant

Side Effects CNS Dizziness, insomnia, agitation, somnolence, light-headedness, activation of mania or hypomania, confusion, memory impairment, paresthesia, abnormal dreams, decreased concentration, ataxia, incoordination, psychomotor retardation, tremor, hypertonia, decreased libido, vertigo, twitching, depersonalization, hallucinations, suicide thoughts attempt, apathy, euphoria, hostility, abnormal gait, abnormal thinking, derealization, paranoid reaction, dysarthria, myoclo-nus, neuroleptic malignant syndrome (rare). CV Postural hypotension, hypotension, sinus bradycardia, tachycardia, hypertension, syncope, ventricular extrasystoles, angina pectoris, CVA (rare). Oral Dry mouth, perio-dontal abscess, gingivitis, mouth ulceration, stomatitis. GI Nausea, constipation, dyspepsia, diarrhea, increased appetite, vomiting, eructation, colitis, gastritis, esophagitis, peptic ulcer, rectal hemorrhage. Dermatologie Pruritus, dry skin, acne, alopecia, urticaria, maculopapular rash,...

Classification Antiviral protease inhibitor

Musculoskeletal Arthralgia, arthritis, cramps, myalgia, myasthenia, myopathy. Dermatologic Dermatitis, folliculitis, fungal dermatitis, macu-lopapular rash, pruritus, urticaria, sweating. Miscellaneous Asthenia, dehydration, allergic reaction, back pain, fever, headache, malaise, pain, accidental injury.

The Welltempered Spirit

Chinese Medcine Research Model

My own experience of the medical application of Zhan Zhuang, as well as that of several of my students who use it in clinics in Europe, indicates that it can be highly effective in the treatment of a range of internal disorders cancer, blood pressure problems, gastric ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, allergies, infertility and multiple sclerosis. It has also been used to treat disorders related to the nervous system such as Parkinson's disease and chronic fatigue syndrome, as well as an aid in recovery after heart attacks and strokes.

Dairy wW S Up with That

Robert Hatherill, a research scientist at the University of California at Santa Barbara, indicates that we can set ourselves up for serious disease by exposing the body to dairy products. Infants with milk allergies make antibodies to fight milk proteins that are linked to destroying cells in the pancreas. In the case of cataracts, milk sugar can build up in the lens of the eye, causing irreversible clouding or cataract. Dr. Hatherill, whose field is environmental toxicology, also points out that cow's milk enhances the uptake of lead, cadmium, mercury, and other metals.

General adverse effects

There are relatively few adverse effects at the doses of chloroquine that are used for malaria prophylaxis and standard treatment doses. However, the use of higher doses than those recommended, for example because of problems with resistance, can cause problems. Infants are very easily overdosed (SEDA-16, 302). In the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and lupus erythematosus, larger doses are used, often for long periods of time, and with this use the incidence of adverse effects is high. Neuromyopathy, neuritis, myopathy, and cardiac myopa-thy can cause serious problems. Retinopathy can lead to blindness. Chloroquine has a long half-life and accumulates in the tissues, including the brain. Concentrations in the brain can have a bearing on mental status and psychotic syndromes. Chloroquine interferes with the action of several enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase, and blocks the sulfhydryl-disulfide interchange reaction. Allergic reactions are generally limited to rashes and...

Biological Properties

The cysteinyl leukotrienes are potent smooth muscle constrictors both in vitro and in vivo in human and animal studies. In humans LTC4 and LTD4 are approximately 1000 times more potent than histamine, on a molar basis, in inducing contractions on isolated human bronchus. LTE4 is about 1 10 as potent as LTC4 or LTD4 (100). Inhalation studies in humans have also shown that the leukotrienes are about 1000 times more potent than either histamine or methacholine in producing bron-choconstriction (101). The sensitivity to inhaled LTD4 is such that the order of responsiveness is asthmatics > allergies > normals (102). Inhaled leukotriene D4 induces hyper-responsiveness to methacholine (103) and inhalation of LTE4 induces eosinophil migration into the lungs of asthmatic test subjects (104). Because eosinophilia has been correlated with the degree of asthma severity, it is possible that the leukotrienes play a significant role in

French Maritime Pine Bark Extract

Effects One of the most potent antioxidants available (it is 50 times more powerful than vitamin E and 20 times more powerful than vitamin C), it can extend the effectiveness of vitamin C over a longer period of time and can effectively protect against the hydroxyl free radical, which can directly damage DNA. The extract can also cross the blood brain barrier and protect brain cells from harmful compounds in the body. It also aids the immune system, strengthens and repairs connective tissue, helps prevent heart disease, strengthens the capillaries, and has antiinflammatory properties that protect against such ailments as arthritis and allergic reactions. Studies have also shown that it can protect against stroke, stress-related ulcers, diabetic retinopathy, and some forms of cancer. It may also increase athletic performance because of its antioxidant properties, and it can relieve the symptoms of psoriasis and swelling of the lower legs. Its anticoagulant effect is five times greater...

The Role of Curcumin in Modern Medicine

Abstract Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is an orange-yellow component of turmeric (Curcuma longa), a spice often found in curry powder. Since the time of Ayurveda numerous therapeutic activities have been assigned to turmeric for a wide variety of diseases and conditions, including those of the skin, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal systems, aches, pains, wounds, sprains, and liver disorders. Curcumin has been shown to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and thus has a potential against various malignant cancers, diabetes, allergies, arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and other chronic illnesses. These effects are mediated through the regulation of various transcription factors, growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, protein kinases, and other enzymes. Thus, curcumin, by virtue of its effect on multiple cell signaling pathways, could prove to be a panacea for modern human diseases.

Broiled Baked and Poached

Omega-3 has many health benefits including lowering triglycerides and helping to prevent heart disease and blood clots, improving brain function, as well as helping with high blood pressure, diabetes, strokes, depression, arthritis, allergies, circulation problems, ADHD, Alzheimer's disease, skin disorders, gout, and lowering the risk of osteoporosis in post-menopausal women. The primary source for this fatty acid is fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel, sardines, and herring. Opt to buy fish that comes from the deep sea (as opposed to farm-raised) so it will be as pollutant-free as possible.

General adverse drug reactions

Symptoms (diarrhea and nausea), abnormal liver function tests, skin rashes and pruritus, allergic reactions, alopecia, infections, weight loss, and hypertension (35,42-45). Minor adverse effects are musculoskeletal disorders. Rare adverse effects include sepsis, pancytopenia, interstitial lung disease, hypertriglyceridemia, vasculitis, aseptic meningitis, reversible neuropathy, and serious skin reactions (35,46-49).

Susceptibility Factors

Patients with previous hypersensitivity to penicillin are more likely to experience a rash when taking penicilla-mine. Cross-allergy to penicillin can occur, but the risk of a severe allergic reaction to penicillamine in penicillin-allergic patients is thought to be low. An important measure to reduce the frequency of adverse reactions of penicillamine is to start with a small dosage (for example 125 mg day in rheumatoid arthritis), to increase the dosage only slowly, and to maintain treatment with the lowest effective dosage. Nevertheless, serious complications such as nephrosis, pemphigus, alveolitis, and poly-myositis have occurred while only 250 mg day or less was used (SEDA-8, 235) (50,182,355).

Commonly abused overthecounter drugs

The OTC stimulants are divided into two types of drugs amphetamines and caffeine. Diet pills contain amphetamines, while caffeine is found in a wide array of products including coffee, tea, many soft drinks, pain medications, and allergy and cold remedies. Both amphetamines and caffeine are used to delay the onset of mental and physical fatigue. Because they increase short-term energy, they are often abused by people who work long hours or athletes looking for a physical advantage in their sport.

Alternative delivery

Aloe vera A plant of the genus Aloe, a member of the lily family. There are at least 120 known species of aloe, many of which have been used as botanical medicines. The sap and rind portions of the aloe vera leaf contain analgesics, antiinflam-matory compounds, minerals, and beneficial fatty acids. Aloe vera is widely known as a skin moisturizer and healing agent, especially in treating cuts, burns, insect stings, bruises, acne, poison ivy, welts, ulcerated skin lesions, eczema, and sunburns. It has also been used to treat stomach disorders, ulcers, and many colon-related disorders, including colitis. Aloe juice may be used to treat food allergies, varicose veins, skin cancer, and arthritis as well. Aloe vera may help stop the spread of some viruses, such as herpes simplex I and II, varicella zoster virus, pseudorabies virus, and the influenza virus. ciency virus in vitro (in the laboratory). Its toxicity significantly limits its use in vivo (in the living body). A current study under...

Applications of Hypnosis

Research on altered states of consciousness has led to many benefits. The analgesic properties of hypnosis were verified in research conducted by Ernest Hilgard at Stanford University. He found that hypnotic suggestion could be used to reduce or eliminate experimentally induced pain. Even though subjects were not consciously aware of the pain, Hilgard found that, with the right questions, he could uncover a hidden observer, a dissociated aspect of the subject's conscious awareness that did monitor the feelings of pain. Hilgard reports that hypnotic relief from pain has been reported for the chronic pain of arthritis, nerve damage, migraine headaches, and cancer. For individuals who are unable to be anesthetized because of allergic reactions or fear of needles, hypnosis is often used as an effective substitute for the control of pain. It has been effectively applied in cases involving dental work, childbirth, burns, abdominal surgery, and spinal taps. Hypnotic suggestion has also been...

Diabetes mellitus 141

Dexamethasone A synthetic steroid hormone, similar to those produced by the adrenal glands. Like other corticosteroids, dexamethasone has a wide range of biological actions. It is used most frequently for its anti-inflammatory effects, but it is also a potent inhibitor of certain immune responses. Dexamethasone is used to treat a variety of conditions, including arthritis and other rheumatic diseases, connective-tissue disease, respiratory disease, skin disorders, allergic reactions, inflammation of the eyes, certain blood disorders, inflammation of the brain, and, as a palliative, in certain cancers. In people with HIV it is commonly used alone to counteract allergic drug reactions and as part of a combination chemotherapy for the treatment of AIDS-related lymphoma. Dexametha-sone is available in a number of formulations, including tablets or liquid, topical creams or lotions, ointments for administration to the eyes, inhalants, and as a solution for injection. Stomach upset,...

Curcumin The Indian Solid Gold

Abstract Turmeric, derived from the plant Curcuma longa, is a gold-colored spice commonly used in the Indian subcontinent, not only for health care but also for the preservation of food and as a yellow dye for textiles. Curcumin, which gives the yellow color to turmeric, was first isolated almost two centuries ago, and its structure as diferuloylmethane was determined in 1910. Since the time of Ayurveda (1900 bc) numerous therapeutic activities have been assigned to turmeric for a wide variety of diseases and conditions, including those of the skin, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal systems, aches, pains, wounds, sprains, and liver disorders. Extensive research within the last half century has proven that most of these activities, once associated with turmeric, are due to cur-cumin. Curcumin has been shown to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities and thus has a potential against various malignant diseases, diabetes,...

Concluding Remarks

The data discussed here indicate that, in animals, Spirulina is able to stimulate a variety of immune functions, including macrophage phagocytosis and production of cytokines, chemokines and other inflammatory mediators, NK cell activity, B cell antibody production, and T cell proliferation and possibly cytokine secretion. Despite its ability to induce proinflammatory cytokines, Spirulina has also been shown to significantly inhibit inflammatory responses in a variety of animal models, including models of rheumatoid arthritis, colitis, and IgE-mediated local and systemic allergic reactions. This may indicate that Spirulina possesses truly immunomodulatory activities, enhancing suboptimal immune responses, while dampening immune system hyperactivity. Acute and chronic toxicity studies in animals indicate that Spirulina does not pose a health risk,21 and isolated reports of possible adverse effects in humans are not clearly attributable to the consumption of Spirulina.42,43 The US Food...

Hereditary Angioedema

HPI She has seen an allergy specialist for several years and has received desensitization shots for multiple allergies, including pollen, dust, and cat hair. immunodeficiency, especially in patients of European descent. Diarrhea is usually caused by Giardia lambUa recurrent sinopulmonary infections are caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, or Staphylococcus aureus associated with an increased incidence of allergies and autoimmune diseases such as SLE and rheumatoid arthritis. Selective IgA deficiency may be due to a specific defect in isotvpe switching.

Rights to Genetic Property

Other genetic patent attempts have been more successful. As of 1995, nearly 1,200 patents on human gene sequences had been granted worldwide, and currently about 450 formal applications are submitted per year.34 For example, the U.S. companies Genentech and Kiren-Amgen own the patent rights respectively to tissue plasminogen activator (used to treat heart attack patients) and erythropoeitin the Japanese firm Takeda is the legal proprietor of more than sixty genes and the University of Washington and the University of California each own at least a dozen more. These organizations therefore possess the legal right to exclude others from making, using, and selling commercial products (e.g., a therapeutic drug or diagnostic procedure) from their genes, usually for a period of twenty years. Patents issued for human DNA range from PCR primers of diagnostic use to synthetic hybrids between interferon and interleukin genes that have therapeutic potential for treating allergies and chronic...

Cortisone and corticosteroids Prednisolone dexamethasone and others

These are powerful anti-inflammatory drugs that are occasionally needed for severe attacks of asthma, arthritis, or severe allergic reactions. But in many countries, steroids are prescribed for minor aches and pains because they often give quick results. This is a big mistake. Steroids cause serious or dangerous side effects especially if used in high doses or for more than a few days. They lower a person's defenses against infection. They can make tuberculosis much worse, cause bleeding of stomach ulcers, and make bones so weak that they break easily.

Didronel See etidronate

Side effects Common GI symptoms, usually indigestion or heartburn, and fluid retention with ankle edema. Less common peptic ulcers with or without complications such as perforation, gastrointestinal obstruction, or bleeding. Risk factors for complicated peptic ulcers caused by NSAIDs are age older than 65 years, previous peptic ulcer or bleeding ulcer, and treatment with a corticosteroid. NSAIDs can increase blood pressure, impair kidney function, and cause abnormal liver function tests (usually mild), rashes, ringing in the ears, and a feeling of lightheadedness. Uncommon Serious allergy to NSAIDs can result in anaphylaxis with bronchospasm, urticaria, and angioedema.

Chronic Falsepositive Vdrl Test Lasting Longer Than 6 Months

Primary, secondary, and latent syphilis are treated with benzathine penicillin neurosyphilis is treated with intravenous aqueous crystalline penicillin G 2 to 4 million units every 4 hr for 10 to 14 days. An alternate regimen is procaine penicillin, 2.4 million units intramuscularly daily with probenecid, 500 mg orally four times a day, both for 10 to 14 days. Patients with a history of penicillin allergies should be skin tested and desensitized if necessary. y , y The frequency with which intravenous antibiotics are unsuccessful in the therapy of neurosyphilis is extremely low. In those instances in which a progression of clinical disease or persistence of a CSF lymphocytic pleocytosis or a reactive CSF-VDRL is present, re-treatment of the patient with an additional 24 million units d for 10 days is reasonable. The initial CSF pleocytosis will resolve 6 months after penicillin therapy in 80 percent of patients. Serial CSF-VDRL titers should decrease with treatment....

Feldene See piroxicam

Side effects Common GI symptoms, usually indigestion or heartburn, and fluid retention with ankle edema. Less common Peptic ulcers with or without complications such as perforation, gastrointestinal obstruction, or bleeding. Risk factors for complicated peptic ulcers caused by NSAIDs are age older than 65 years, previous peptic ulcer or bleeding ulcer, and treatment with a corticosteroid. NSAIDs can increase blood pressure, impair kidney function, and cause abnormal liver function tests (usually mild), rashes, ringing in the ears, and a feeling of lightheadedness. Uncommon Serious allergy to NSAIDs can result in anaphylaxis with bronchospasm, urticaria, and angioedema. Side effects Common Nausea, vomiting, constipation, decreased appetite, dizziness, lighthead-edness, sedation, and low blood pressure. Uncommon Allergy resulting in an urticarial rash or bronchospasm, confusion, agitation, insomnia, euphoria, addiction, and suppression of respiration. Side effects Common Anxiety,...

Groups at High Risk for Colorectal Cancer as Targets for Chemoprevention Trials

After 6 months of therapy at the highest dose of celecoxib (400 mg twice a day, twice the usual antiarthritic dose), as measured by still photographs in designated regions of interest, there was a statistically significant (P .003) reduction in adenoma burden, compared with baseline. Specifically, the high-dose group experienced a mean 28 reduction in adenoma count, compared with a 4.5 reduction in the placebo group, and an intermediate reduction of 12 in the 100-mg-twice-a-day group. This effect persisted after adjustment for age, sex, previous surgery (colectomy vs intact colon), baseline polyp burden, and investigating institution. The celecoxib was well tolerated, with 68 , 56 , and 57 of subjects in the placebo, low-dose, and high-dose groups, respectively, reporting a grade 2 or worse adverse event, including diarrhea and abdominal pain. Adverse events requiring subject withdrawal from the trial included suicide (celecoxib 100-mg arm, in a patient with a prior suicide attempt),...

Nsaids And Cardiovascular Risk

Gastrointestinal safety advantage for COX-2 inhibitors is substantially reduced when given with aspirin and (5) though hypersensitivity reactions are rare, serious, and sometimes fatal, skin reactions might occur with all COX-2 inhibitors. The majority of these reactions occur in the first month of use, and prescribers are warned that patients with a history of drug allergies may be at greater risk.

Procedures for Diagnosing Endometriosis

Researchers have linked endometriosis to such diseases as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and Sjogren's syndrome, which suggests that endometriosis may have an autoimmune component. Other conditions, such as fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, hypothyroidism, allergies, asthma, and eczema, are significantly more common in women with endometriosis than in the general female population of the United States.27 Endometriosis is also correlated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.28,29

Cyclooxygenase2 Inhibitors

As a result, use of COX-2 inhibitors should be avoided in patients with risk factors for cardiovascular events (e.g., hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking). Use is contraindicated in patients with congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, or severe peripheral arterial disease, as well as patients with sensitivities to COX-2 inhibitors or allergies to sulfonamides or NSAIDs. Concomitant use of aspirin, although it reduces risk of cardiovascular complications, may increase GI complications that would otherwise have been preventable with use of the COX-2 inhibitor.

Immunologics For Arthritis Side Effects

Sulfa allergy refers to a specific hypersensitivity response to a group of chemicals containing a sulfonamide moiety covalently bound to a benzene ring drugs structurally similar to sulfonamides may cross-react, for example sul-fonylureas, thiazides, and furosemide (167). Sulfa allergy is most consistent with an immune-mediated reaction with delayed onset, 7-14 days after the start of therapy, characterized by fever, rash, and eosinophilia. IgG antibodies may be present and directed against proteins in the endo-plasmic reticulum (about 80 of patients) or against the drug covalently bound to protein (about 5 of patients). High-dose methylprednisolone sodium succinate (250 mg every 6 hours for 48 hours) may not only alleviate the signs but also markedly attenuate the antibody response, as reported in a 19-year-old man (168). Urticarial and maculopapular rashes are the most frequent adverse reactions to sulfonamides after gastrointestinal symptoms. Although hypersusceptibility is...

Fortovase Invirase [Rx Classification Antiviral drug protease inhibitor

HIV-infected children or adolescents less than 16 years of age. Side Effects Side effects listed are for saquinavir combined with either AZT or ddC. Oral Ulceration of buccal mucosa, cheilitis, gingivitis, glossitis, stomatitis, tooth disorder, dry mouth, alteration in taste. GI Diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, nausea, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, constipation, dysphagia, eructation, blood-stained or discolored feces, gastralgia, gastritis, GI inflammation, rectal hemorrhage, hemorrhoids, hepatomegaly, hepatosplenomegaly, melena, pain, painful defecation, pancreatitis, parotid disorder, pelvic salivary glands disorder, vomiting, frequent bowel movements. CNS Headache, paresthesia, numbness of extremity, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, ataxia, confusion, convulsions, dysarthria, dysesthesia, hyperes-thesia, hyperreflexia, hyporeflexia, face numbness, facial pain, paresis, poliomyelitis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, spasms, tremor, agitation, amnesia, anxiety, depression,...

The Pottenger Cat Study

Males showed a failure in active spermatogenesis (meaning they had low sperm count and weak sperm). Miscarriages accounted for up to seventy percent in second-generation deficient cats. Skin allergies were frequent and got worse with each subsequent generation. The third generation cats were so deficient that none survived beyond the sixth month. Needless to say, there was no fourth generation of deficient cats. In contrast, those cats that were given raw food (normal cats) were healthy in all generations. Their internal organs were fully developed, and the immune systems of all four generations of these cats were fully intact, with no signs of infections or allergies. They reproduced one homogeneous generation after another, all in good health. It's interesting to note that when the second generation of deficient cats was put back on a raw food diet, some of the deficiency-related symptoms, such as allergies, diminished and by the fourth generation some cats had fully restored immune...

Indications Rationale

The indications for z-joint injections are axial pain, referred pain, or putative implication that this joint is contributing to a spine pain syndrome. Pain maps have been generated in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions. Imaging has no clear role other than documenting degenerative joint disease and associated findings, or excluding other pathologies such as neoplasm or infection. However, particularly in the cervical spine in the postwhiplash patient, normal appearing z-joints can be symptomatic. Osteoarthritis of the z-joints is often part of the degenerative cascade where the anterior column articulation (intervertebral disc) is first affected with subsequent subluxation and degeneration of the posterior element articulations. There are only a few contraindications to intra-articular z-joint injections. The absolute contraindications include infection (unless a needle placement is part of a diagnostic arthrocentesis), pregnancy, or an uncontrollable bleeding diathesis. The...

Insulin Paved the Way for Biotechnology

The ability to deliberately insert the genes from one organism into the genome of another organism only came about in 1973. Almost immediately, researchers and commercial biotechnology companies recognized the potential of DNA technology in the manufacture of insulin. While the insulin obtained from pigs and cows was life-saving for diabetics, allergic reactions were possi

Rheumatic Inflammation Is Driven by Activated Th1 Cells

Patients with RA have a decreased prevalence of allergic diseases (Verhoef et al. 1998). Moreover, those patients with RA who, for example, have hay fever have less severe disease compared with control patients with RA without hay fever (Verhoef et al. 1998). As expected, atopic RA patients have higher levels of serum IgE and peripheral blood eosinophils, but their T cells produce less IFN-Y after maximum in vitro stimulation (Verhoef et al. 1998). As allergy is the prototype Th2 disease and activated Th2 cells are able to inhibit the generation and the function of Th1 effectors, these studies support the contention that the occurrence of a Th2-mediated immune response might be beneficial in RA by inhibiting Th1-driven immunity.

Other Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies

Ulatory T cells (Fig. 13.1) (Luhder et al. 2003), and was extremely promising in models of MS, neuritis and experimental arthritis. Whilst to our knowledge no significant side effects occurred in any of the preceding animal experiments, including those with primates, or in vitro studies with human cells, all six healthy volunteers who were exposed to this antibody during a phase I study suffered from immediate, severe and life threatening allergic reactions which shocked people all over Europe (see news.bbc.co.uk 1 hi england london 4808836.stm). Fortunately the volunteers made almost a full recovery. The scientific and clinical investigations are still ongoing. One obvious consequence for future phase I trials is to administer novel agents sequentially, not simultaneously.

Drugs Of Inflammatory And Immunity Disorders

Drugs for inflammatory and immunity disorders have various clinical indications (inflammation, allergy, asthma, dermatology diseases, arthritis, analgesia, etc.). The mechanisms of action are multiple and various. We successively focus on ligands of nuclear receptors with the fluorocorticoids, which are both anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant, and antagonists of histamine receptor, which are purely antiallergic compounds, and on inhibitors of different enzymes (e.g., HLE, arachidonic cascade enzymes, phosphodiesterase 4) with prostaglandin derivatives and NSAID.

Prospective Memory in the Real World The Case of Medical Adherence and Aging

It is important to note that participants in the studies described thus far were using medications that they had taken for some time, and they were highly familiar with their regimen. We hypothesize that older adults may be at the most risk for nonadherence when they are prescribed new medications or medical procedures with which they are highly unfamiliar. In these cases, they would have to comprehend and remember a considerable amount of information utilizing retrospective memory, and at the same time learn a new prospective behavior. Future research, contrasting familiar routines with more novel routines in older adults, would be welcome. Another important aspect contributing to adherence behavior in older adults may be the fact that they are taking medications that are more critical to maintain their function (e.g., heart medications) than young adults (e.g., allergy medications). Additionally, older people generally have far more cues suggesting their physical vulnerability than...

Tizanidine hydrochloride

Retention, kidney calculus, enlarged uterine fibroids, vaginal moniliasis, vaginitis. Hematologic Ecchymosis, anemia, leukopenia, leukocytosis. Musculoskeletal Myasthenia, back pain, pathological fracture, arthral-gia, arthritis, bursitis. Respiratory Sinusitis, pneumonia, bronchitis, rhinitis. Dermatologic Rash, sweating, skin ulcer, pruritus, dry skin, acne, alopecia, urticaria. Body as a whole Flu syndrome, weight loss, infection, sepsis, cellulitis, death, allergic reaction, moniliasis, malaise, asthenia, fever, abscess, edema. Ophthalmic Glaucoma, amblyopia, conjunctivitis, eye pain, optic neuritis, retinal hemorrhage, visual field defect. Otic Ear pain, tinnitus, deafness, otitis media. Miscellaneous Speech disorder.

Lupus Systemic Lupus Erythematosus SLE

The type of fat in the diet is important saturated fats and polyunsaturated fats including sunflower, corn, and safflower oils are inflammatory and can exacerbate the condition. In studies, improvement has been shown when omega-3 fatty acids are included in the diet. Alfalfa seeds and sprouts aggravate the disease and food allergies may precipitate an inflammation.

Differences In Transdermal Technology And Pharmacology Of Fentanyl And Buprenorphine

Butrans Patch Excipients

Because of the difference in construction between both transdermal systems, the reservoir and the matrix composition, one has to be aware of possible side effects of the former. When using the old reservoir system, an additional rate limiting control membrane guarantees a steady stream of the active compound fentanyl into the skin. Contrary, in the matrix composition the active compound is incorporated in a polymer layer (Fig. IV-14). Because of this difference the reservoir system should never be cut in order to reduce the dose or use a damaged system for pain relief. By cutting the fentanyl reservoir patch in half the control membrane will no longer act as a rate limiting lining, which results in leaching of fentanyl and a dose dumping with an increase of opioid being taken up by the skin, with higher plasma level than necessary, resulting in respiratory depression, sedation and or nausea 34 . In the matrix system, no such dose dumping is initiated whenever the transdermal patch is...

Heat Shock Proteins Are Targets For T Cell Regulation How Microbial Hsp Induce Il10 Producing Antiinflammatory T Cells

Abstract Mechanisms of anti-inflammatory T cell regulation are studied very actively, especially since the (re-)discovery of T cell subpopulations with specialized regulatory activities. This is expected to lead to the development of novel immunotherapeutic approaches, especially in chronic autoimmune diseases. HSP are possible targets for regulatory T cells due to their enhanced expression in inflamed (stressed) tissues and the collected evidence that HSP immunizations induced anti-inflammatory immunoregulatory T cell responses. First evidence for an immuno-regulatory role of heat shock proteins (HSP) in autoimmunity was obtained through the analysis of T cell responses in the rat model of adjuvant arthritis and the findings that HSP immunisations protected against the induction of various forms of autoimmune arthritis in rat and mouse models. Since then, immune reactivity to HSP was found to result from inflammation in various disease models and in a variety of human inflammatory...

Pharmacological effects

Research findings on pharmacological potential of RA have substantially increased since 2000. RA synergistically inhibited LDL oxidation in combination with lycopene indicating its potential against atherosclerosis (28). In relation to HIV type 1, RA in addition to being an integrase inhibitor also inhibited reverse transcriptase (29,30). In mice studies, Perilla frutescens rich in RA reduced allergenic reactions using mice ear passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction (24,31). In another mice model, RA in Perilla extract inhibited allergic inflammation induced by mite allergen (32). In a human clinical study related to allergy reduction, RA enriched Perilla frutescens proved to be an effective intervention for mild seasonal allergic rhino-conjunctivitis (SAR), partly through inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) infiltration into the nostrils, which could contribute to reduction in treatment costs for allergic diseases (33). In mice studies, oral and intraperitoneal...

Organs and Systems Cardiovascular

Penicillamine, both l-penicillamine and the racemic mixture, strongly inhibit pyridoxal-dependent enzymes, cause pyridoxine deficiency in animal experiments, and are neurotoxic. Although this effect is much weaker with d-penicillamine, a few case reports have shown that d-penicillamine can also occasionally cause a poly-neuropathy, as either a toxic or an allergic reaction (69-72). Rarely, an optic neuropathy (73) or a polyradiculoneuropathy (Guillain-Barre syndrome) (74,75) can occur. During the first few weeks of treatment, allergic reactions occur in about one patient in five (SED-11, 465) (25). Maculopapular or urticarial rashes are frequent and can be associated with pruritus, edema, lymphadenopa-thy, arthralgia, fever, and eosinophilia. Patients with previous hypersensitivity to penicillin are more likely to experience a rash when taking penicillamine. Cross-allergy to penicillin can occur, but the risk of a severe allergic reaction to penicillamine in penicillin-allergic...

Handphone Vivo

Basic mechanisms of anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 1992 12 33-46. 38. Golbert TM, Patterson R, Pruzansky JJ. Systemic allergic reactions to ingested antigens. J Allergy 1969 44(2) 96-107. 41. Puyana J, Urena V, Quirce S, Fernandez-Rivas M, Cuevas M, Fraj J. Serum sickness-like syndrome associated with minocycline therapy. Allergy 1990 45(4) 313-15. 57. Menon MP, Das AK. Tetracycline asthma a case report. Clin Allergy 1977 7(3) 285-90. 134. Fawcett IW, Pepys J. Allergy to a tetracycline prepara-tion a case report. Clin Allergy 1976 6(3) 301-4. 142. Bojs G, Moller H. Eczematous contact allergy to oxytetra-cycline with cross-sensitivity to other tetracyclines. Berufsdermatosen 1974 22(5) 202-8.

Modulation and Regulation of Immune Responses

From an epidemiological point of view, very interesting studies argue in favor of the important role of the bacterial environment in the first year of life in order to ensure the good orientation of immune responses preventing the short- and long-term development of atopic diseases (13,101,103,109-111). Recent comparative studies have been conducted in children living in the same allergenic environment but under different life-style conditions, urban and farming environments. Results showed that substantial protection against development of asthma, hay fever, and allergic sensitization was seen only in children exposed to stables, farm raw milk, or both in their first year of life (103). Authors also found that prenatal exposure of women had a substantial protective effect.

Arthrotec See diclofenac

For complicated peptic ulcers caused by NSAIDs are age older than 65 years, previous peptic ulcer or bleeding ulcer, and cotreatment with a corticos-teroid. NSAIDs can increase blood pressure, impair kidney function, and cause abnormal liver function tests (usually mild), rashes, ringing in the ears, and a feeling of lightheadedness. Uncommon Serious allergy to NSAIDs can result in anaphylaxis with bronchospasm, urticaria, and angioedema. Reye's syndrome is a rare condition that causes liver failure and coma in children treated with aspirin for a viral illness. Side effects Common Diarrhea, gas and cramping, itching, skin rash, mouth ulcers, and protein in the urine. Uncommon Serious allergic reactions such as a generalized skin rash with peeling, bone marrow suppression resulting in a low white cell count or low platelet count, hepatitis, peripheral neuropathy, fever, and lung inflammation. increases sensitivity to the drug substantially. The homozygous form (both strands of DNA...

Chondroitin sulfate See glucosamine and chon

Side effects common Nausea, vomiting, constipation, poor appetite, dizziness, feeling lightheaded, and sleepiness. uncommon Feeling nervous or agitated, sleeping badly, an allergic reaction with urticarial rash (hives) or bronchospasm, confusion, feeling high, and addiction. collagen (Trade names None) Also known as chicken collagen. Collagen is a potential treatment for rheumatoid arthritis but has been ineffective in most clinical trials. The theory underlying the use of collagen is similar to the concept of allergy shots with low doses of allergen desensitizing allergic responses. Collagen taken by mouth was thought to make the immunologically active cells in the wall of the gut tolerant to collagen and thus tolerant to the patient's collagen, a major component of joints and connective tissue. There are ongoing studies, but the evidence so far does not support a role for collagen treatment in rheumatoid arthritis.

What Is Ahlminpelvic Test

Take a complete sexual history. To direct specimen collection, elicit information regarding sexual orientation and sexual practices (vaginal, oral, and anal). To determine treatment plans, inquire about medication allergies. Explore the patient's birth control practices and determine if the patient and partner regularly use condoms. Explore the number of sex partners, the incidence of unprotected sexual contacts, and the frequency of sex with unknown partners.

Monocytes and macrophages Figure i72d and e

Prussin C, Metcalfe DD (2003) IgE, mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 111 S486-94. Egesten A, Calafat J, Janssen H etal. (2001) Granules of human eosinophilic leucocytes and their mobilization. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 31 1173-88.

Functional properties and toxicity

Culinary cinnamon is on the Food and Drug Administration's list of herbs generally regarded as safe. The amounts of cinnamon normally used in food are non-toxic, although some people develop allergic reactions after eating this spice. Chronic use may cause inflammation in the mouth. Ingestion of cinnamon oil may cause nausea, vomiting and possible kidney damage. The oil may cause redness and burning of the skin. Do not use in case of fever and pregnancy. Cinnamon handlers have a high incidence of asthma, skin irritation, and hair loss. Toothpastes and ointments containing cinnamon may cause stomatitis and dermatitis in some cases. Only small amounts should be used initially in persons who have not previously had contact with cinnamon, and anyone with a known allergy should avoid it. The concentrated oil is more likely to cause problems. It has been reported from Sri Lanka that workers undertaking grading of cinnamon have suffered a number of ailments, mainly in the form of cough and...

Prozac See fluoxetine

Side effects Mild gastrointestinal symptoms with nausea, indigestion, and constipation are common. Difficulty swallowing vomiting and allergic reactions are rare. Side effects Common GI symptoms, usually indigestion or heartburn, and fluid retention with ankle edema. Less common Peptic ulcers with or without complications such as perforation, gastrointestinal obstruction, or bleeding. Risk factors for complicated peptic ulcers caused by NSAIDs are age older than 65 years, previous peptic ulcer or bleeding ulcer, and treatment with a corticosteroid. The risk of peptic ulcers and their complications is lower with selective COX-2-inhibiting NSAIDs, such as rofecoxib, than nonselective NSAIDs. NSAIDs can increase blood pressure, impair kidney function, and cause abnormal liver function tests (usually mild), rashes, ringing in the ears, and a feeling of lightheadedness. Uncommon Serious allergy to NSAIDs can result in anaphylaxis with bron-chospasm, urticaria, and angioedema. in a study...

Diseasemodifying antirheumatic drugs DMARDs

Another group of drugs is able to cause flares of lupus. This is a completely different situation than that discussed above but is mentioned here because it frequently causes confusion. These patients already have SLE, although it may be very well controlled. It is also different in that the flare typically occurs within a week or two of taking the drug and does not necessarily improve on stopping it. Most frequently the flare is in the form of a rash. These reactions are better seen as drug allergies rather than disease induction. SLE patients have long been known to be particularly prone to drug allergies. Antibiotics are commonly involved in these reactions, including sulfonamides, penicillins, cephalosporins, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin.

Kei Ohnuma Osamu Hosono Nam H Dang and Chikao Morimoto

*Division of Rheumatology and Allergy, Research Hospital, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan TDivision of Hematology Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA Division of clinical immunology, Advanced Clinical Research Center, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Suggested Treatment Of Anaphylaxis

Most drug rashes are maculopapular and occur several days after starting treatment with an offending drug. They usually are not associated with other signs and symptoms, and they resolve several days after removal of the offending agent. Serum sickness, on the other hand, is an allergic reaction that Finally, several other types of drug reactions do not fit into the categories discussed. Two of the most important types are iodine allergy and phenytoin (Dilantin) hypersensitivity. Iodine allergy is often associated with radiologic contrast media. Reactions to contrast media are the result of the hyperosmolar dye causing degranulation of mast cells and basophils rather than a true allergic reaction. These reactions can be prevented by pretreatment with diphenhydramine, H, blockers, and corticosteroids beginning 12 hours before the procedure. There is no evidence that a history of seafood allergy is related to adverse events from radiocontrast media. Dilantin hypersensitivity can...

Enbrel See etanercept

Side effects Few adverse effects occur but there is limited long-term information. Common It requires subcutaneous injection, and minor skin injection reactions resulting in redness and itching around the injection site are common. Approximately 5-10 percent of patients receiving etaner-cept will develop a positive antinuclear antibody (ANA) test, raising the concern that etanercept may increase the risk of autoimmune diseases such as SLE. So far this has not been a problem, but the long-term effects are not yet known. Uncommon The risk of infections (sometimes serious) such as pneumonia is increased. Rare Case reports or small series of patients developing diabetes, cancer, lymphoma, vasculitis, SLE-like autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis-like demyelinating disorders, liver disease, hematological abnormalities including aplastic anemia, severe allergy, meningitis and infection with tuberculosis, atypical mycobacteria, aspergillosis, histoplasmosis, and listeria have been reported...

Supplements For The Undereating Phase

Anti-allergenic Many people suffer from food allergies and allergic reactions due to undigested food in the colon and blood. Undigested food creates inflammation, water retention, toxins, and slows down your whole system. Your body recognizes it as a foreign invader thus triggering an allergic reaction. Digestive enzymes may help combat these probsems.

Mycophenolate mofetil mycophenolic acid

Side effects Common GI symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, and nausea. Uncommon Bone marrow suppression, allergic reactions, mild increases in liver enzymes, herpes zoster, and increased risk of infection. Side effects Common GI symptoms, usually indigestion or heartburn, and fluid retention with ankle edema. Less common Peptic ulcers with or without complications such as perforation, gastrointestinal obstruction, or bleeding. Risk factors for complicated peptic ulcers caused by NSAIDs are age older than 65 years, previous peptic ulcer or bleeding ulcer, and treatment with a corticosteroid. NSAIDs can increase blood pressure, impair kidney function, and cause abnormal liver function tests (usually mild), rashes, ringing in the ears, and a feeling of lightheadedness. Uncommon Serious allergy to NSAIDs can result in anaphylaxis with bronchospasm, urticaria, and angioedema. Side effects Common GI symptoms, usually indigestion or heartburn, and fluid retention with ankle...

Disorders of basophils and mast cells

High basophil numbers are commonly seen in patients with myeloproliferative disorders, in particular chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). Basophil number can be strikingly elevated in patients with CML, accounting for over 20 of circulating leucocytes in the more advanced stages of the disease. They are a part of the neoplastic clone expressing the Philadelphia chromosome or the BCR-ABL fusion gene. In other myeloproliferative disorders such as myelofibrosis and polycythaemia vera, elevation of basophil numbers is usually more modest. Cases of AML with high levels of immature basophils have also been reported. Rarely, basophils may constitute over 80 of circulating leucocytes, a condition sometimes referred to as basophilic leukaemia. These patients may exhibit clinical features related to the release of histamine and other basophil granular contents, and their treatment can be difficult owing to the possibility of massive release of these mediators secondary to cellular lysis. Other...

Tolectin See tolmetin

Are age older than 65 years, previous peptic ulcer or bleeding ulcer, and treatment with a corticos-teroid. NSAIDs can increase blood pressure, impair kidney function, and cause abnormal liver function tests (usually mild), rashes, ringing in the ears, and a feeling of lightheadedness. Uncommon Serious allergy to NSAIDs can result in anaphylaxis with bronchospasm, urticaria, and angioedema.

Muscle Joint and Soft Tissue Complications of Diabetes

Several studies have shown that total fasting improves the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in some patients, but the effects are temporary. Because it was possible that food allergy aggravated arthritis, researchers have studied the effects of elemental and exclusion diets. Elemental diets contain minerals and amino acids rather than complex proteins and have resulted in a modest improvement in symptoms in some patients but

Gold oral See auranofin

Side effects Common itching, skin rash, mouth ulcers, a metallic taste, and proteinuria. Uncommon A severe skin rash with peeling, other serious allergic reactions, bone marrow suppression resulting in low white blood cell count or thrombocytopenia, hepatitis, peripheral neuropathy, fever, and lung inflammation. A nitritoid reaction, characterized by feeling flushed and lightheaded immediately after a gold injection, is unpleasant but is not a true allergic reaction. Side effects Common Knee inflammation resulting in pain and swelling and injection site irritation. Uncommon Any intra-articular injection has a small risk of introducing an infection. Allergic reactions can occur.

Alternative mucosal sperm exposure

Oral administration of myelin and collagen has a significant beneficial effect in patients with multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, respectively. This effect (oral tolerization) is probably related to the specific way in which the antigen is processed by the digestive tract immune system. Oral tolerance is a long-recognized method of inducing immune tolerance. Interestingly, antigens that stimulate the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) preferentially generate a Th2 type response (Weiner et al., 1994). In 1986, two distinct and mutually inhibitory types of T-helper cells were described (Mossman et al., 1986). The first type of cell, termed Th1, secretes IL-2, IFN-g, and lymphotoxin. This contrasts with Th2 cells, which secrete IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 (Mossman and Moore, 1991). Th1 cytokines are associated with cell-mediated immunity and delayed hypersensi-tivityreactions, while Th2 cytokines foster antibody responses and allergic reactions. Because Th1 cytokines are...

Melinda When the Cure Is Worse Than the Disease

When Melinda was in her midthirties, she sought more aggressive medical treatment of her allergies and asthma, as well as of her increasingly stiff joints. Up to this point, she had used either over-the-counter or prescription antihistamines for her allergies, nasal corticosteroid hormones for her asthma, and ibuprofen (an NSAID, or nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug) for her rheumatoid arthritis. Melinda's physician put her on prednisone, a hormone treatment for allergies and arthritis, and a potent prescription-strength NSAID. Side effects from the prednisone included a seventy-pound weight gain, weakened bones, and increased susceptibility to colds and flus, which left

Human Nutrition References

Dry, J. and Vicent, D., Effect of fish oil diet on asthma results of a one-year doubleblind study, Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol., 95, 156, 1991. 48. Schauer, U. et al., Enhanced superoxide generation by eosinophils from asthmatic children, Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol, 96, 317, 1991. Labhe, R.U. et al., Management of bronchial asthma with spirulina. In Proc. Int. Symp. on Recent Advances in Mol. Biol., Allergy and Immunology, Sept 3-5, 2000, 138.

Intravenous immunoglobulin IVIG See gammaglobulin

Side effects Common GI symptoms, usually indigestion or heartburn, and fluid retention with ankle edema. Less common Peptic ulcers with or without complications such as perforation, gastrointestinal obstruction, or bleeding. Risk factors for complicated peptic ulcers caused by NSAiDs are age older than 65 years, previous peptic ulcer or bleeding ulcer, and treatment with a corticosteroid. NSAIDs can increase blood pressure, impair kidney function, and cause abnormal liver function tests (usually mild), rashes, ringing in the ears, and a feeling of lightheadedness. Uncommon Serious allergy to NSAIDs can result in anaphylaxis with bronchospasm, urticaria, and angioedema. Side effects Common GI symptoms, usually indigestion or heartburn, and fluid retention with ankle edema. Less common Peptic ulcers with or without complications such as perforation, gastrointestinal obstruction, or bleeding. Risk factors for complicated peptic ulcers caused by NSAiDs are age older than 65 years,...

Phoebe A Kaplan and Robert G Dussault

Robert Dussault

However, if there is a history of contrast material allergy, premedi-cation would be advised. The complications that may occur from a steroid injection for plantar fasciitis are of little consequence and are rare. Potential risks include pain, infection, hematoma, allergic reaction to contrast material, fat pad atrophy from repeated injections, and rupture of the fascia. A 10 rate of plantar fascia rupture after corticosteroid injection has been reported (4) however, that has not been our experience.We have done hundreds of these injections without any occurrences of rupture. Perhaps this is because we do not directly inject steroids interstitially into the fascia, which predisposes the fascia to a higher rate of rupture than does infiltrating around the fascia. Regardless, rupture of the plantar fascia is not such a disaster if one remembers that the ultimate treatment for plantar fasciitis, when all other therapies fail, is a fascial release...

Anticancer and Immunomodulatory Properties of Tinospora

Abstract There has been an upsurge in the discovery of bioactive phytochemicals having a chemopreventive ability against various diseases including immunological disorders and cancer. Based on their uses in Ayurveda or herbal medicine, many plants have been the subject of experimental evaluation to provide a scientific rationale for their medicinal values. In this regard, Tinospora has a long history of use against various ailments including spasms, inflammation, arthritis, allergy, diabetes, cardiotoxicity, and immunosuppression. However, scientific evidences for its biological activities are limited. Recently, many studies have been carried out to support the acclaimed as well as to discover the novel potential of Tinospora which have also revealed its anticancer and radioprotective activities. Overall, the anticancer and immunomodulatory activities of Tinospora and its bioactive components could be further explored in relevant experimental model systems for its potential clinical...

Etiology of Thyrotoxicosis

Treatment options for Graves disease are medications, radioactive iodine, or surgery. Medications include beta-blockers (which are used for symptom relief) and antithyroid drugs (methimazole, propylthiouracil). The antithyroid drugs work mainly by decreasing the production of thyroid hormone. They can be used for short-term (prior to treatment with radioactive iodine or surgery) or long-term (1-2 years) treatment, after which the chance for remission is 20-30 . Possible side effects are rash, allergic reactions, arthritis, hepatitis, and agranulocytosis. Radioactive iodine is the treatment of choice in the United States. It is administered as an oral solution of sodium 1311 that is rapidly concentrated in thyroid tissue, inducing damage that results in ablation of the thyroid, depending on the dose, within 6-18 weeks. At least 30 percent of patients will become hypothyroid in the first year after treatment and 3 each year after that, requiring thyroid hormone supplementation....

Inflammatory Processes

Chronic laryngeal inflammation can result from smoking, gastroesophageal reflux (GER), voice abuse, or allergy. Patients often complain of hoarseness, sore throat, a globus sensation, and throat clearing. The vocal folds are usually thickened, dull, and erythematous. Posterior laryngeal involvement usually suggests GER. Besides direct chemical irritation, GER can promote laryngeal muscle misuse, which contributes to wear-and-tear injury (Gill and Morrison, 1998). Although seasonal allergies may cause vocal fold edema and hoarseness (Jackson-Menaldi, Dzul, and Holland, 1999), it is surprising that allergy-induced chronic laryngitis is not more common. Even patients with significant nasal allergies or asthma have a low incidence of voice problems. The severity of other allergic accompaniments helps the clinician identify patients with dysphonia of allergic cause. Jackson-Menaldi, C., Dzul, A., and Holland, R. (1999). Allergies and vocal fold edema A preliminary...

Immunity Protecting against Infections

Immunity is the body's ability to use its highly complex, natural defense with highly specialized cells, organs, and a lymphatic system (a circulatory system separate from blood vessels). Even your first line of defense-your skin, hair, mucous membranes, and tears and saliva-helps protect your body from potentially harmful substances. Together they protect, defend, and clear your body from attacks by infectious bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. A normal immune response ultimately offers protection from other health problems, too, including arthritis, allergies, abnormal cell development, and cancers.

Pathogenesis of Hivaidsassociated autoimmunity

Depletes CD4+ cells, particularly in extra lymphoid tissues that contain the majority of CCR5+ T cells and the majority of effector and memory T cells. As CD4+ T cells include several functional populations 71 , their depletion can result in a variety of immune alterations. Clearly, depletion of the Th1-type of CD4+ cells favors infections by viruses and intracellular pathogens and predisposes to allergy, whereas depletion of Th2-type cells could increase overall T cells responses and susceptibility to parasitic infections. Whereas depletion of these cells can account for the increased susceptibility to infectious complications of AIDS, it is unlikely that it can contribute to the increased autoimmunity and autoimmune syndromes seen in AIDS.

Mast cell inhibitory activity

Mast cells play a central role in the pathogenesis of diseases such as allergic asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, anaphylaxis, urticaria, and systemic mastocytosis they are now considered to be important players in other chronic inflammatory disorders, such as arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease.61415 Mast cells may also participate in sterile inflammatory conditions exacerbated by stress such as atopic dermatitis, interstitial cystitis, irritable bowel syndrome, migraines, and multiple sclerosis.14 Basophils, the circulating equivalent of the tissue mast cells, are considered as important cells in the pathogenesis of late phase allergic reactions.16-19

Brief Survey Of The Immune System

These immune cells have many common features including surface receptors for IgE and granules containing inflammatory mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes B and C, PGD2 and various cytokines. These mediators are released when the cells are activated. Mast cells are found In most tissues and are considerably more abundant than basophils. Full activation of these cells occurs when IgE-bound surface receptors are cross-linked by an antigen. The IgE is provided by a B-cell which can interact with the basophil or mast cell. Mast cells appear to be important in asthma and rhinitis and in various allergies. Allergy Allergy, now termed type 1 hypersensitivity, is characterized by excessive production of IgE in response to harmless common antigens by mast cells and basophils, and their overactivation. As a result, inflammatory mediators (e.g., histamine, PGD2, and leuko-trienes) are released causing symptoms ranging from mild to life-threatening (anaphylaxis).