Acupuncture For Cynics

Acupuncture For Cynics

Have You Always Been Curious About Acupuncture, But Were Never Quite Sure Where To Stick The Needles? If you associate acupuncture with needles, pain and weird alternative medicine then you are horribly misinformed about the benefits of the world's oldest form of medicinal treatment.

Get My Free Ebook

Acupuncture technique

Needles are generally made of stainless steel, but are sometimes gold or silver to achieve energizing or sedating effects. Twenty-eight- to 32-gauge solid needles are used. The length of the needle and depth of penetration depends on the thickness of the underlying soft tissue. Many acupuncture points overlie muscle and the depth of needle insertion is usually to the center of the muscle belly. Needles may be inserted perpendicularly, obliquely, or tangentially. The acupuncturist usually tries to elicit a special needling sensation called deqi, which refers to a deep, heavy, warm, spreading or aching sensation that is felt to be crucial to achieve a therapeutic effect. Stimulation of the acupuncture points is a necessary part of treatment. Needles may be stimulated in a variety of ways manually by thrusting up and down or twisting back and forth or by tapping or scraping the handle of the needle. Electrical current can be applied to pairs of needles at frequencies of 3-5 Hz or higher...


Acupressure Based on the principles of acupuncture, this ancient Chinese technique involves the use of finger pressure, rather than needles, on specific chi points on the body to relieve tension and stress, as well as menstrual pain, cramps, arthritis, headaches, and eyestrain. Acupressure is also said to prevent and combat colds, improve muscle tone, boost energy levels, and be generally useful in preventive health care. Acupressure, like acupuncture, is intended to relieve muscular tension, increasing the flow of blood and therefore of oxygen and nutrients to tissues throughout the body. This helps promote physical calmness and mental alertness, and aids in healing by removing waste products. Many researchers now believe that acupuncture and acupressure trigger the release of endorphins, neurochemicals that relieve pain. Both techniques have been used with some success to provide relief to people with HIV and AIDS. acupuncture A Chinese medical therapy in which needles are used to...

Keeping up appearances

IN BOTH TRADITIONAL Chinese Medicine and Qigong, we use a variety of acupuncture points. Acupuncture points are like doors and windows where Qi enters and is released from the body. These points are located on the various channels in the body. Our body is like house, so just like in a house, some windows will be small and some will be big, letting in more light. Doorways will let people come and go from the house easily, otherwise no one can leave and no one can come to visit. It is the same for the acupuncture points. Some points are very powerful and will let a lot of Qi go into the body when stimulated. It is these major points that we will use in our Qigong practise.

From Alcoholism to Enlightenment

I've incorporated the Qigong into my acupuncture and I've used just the Spring Forest Qigong to help lots of people. And it works. I've helped people with all kinds of things. I've helped my friend Marshall's mother with arthritis. It works really well with everything from simple aches and pains, to irritable bowel syndrome and lumps and all kinds of things. It has worked on virtually everyone I've ever used it with.

Chapter The Origins of Qigong

Chinese Emperor Surgeons

With continued observation they found that the flow of the steam could make the body warm and was related to the spirit -spirit in the sense of a feeling of wellbeing rather than in the religious sense of the word. Gradually they discovered a network of channels crossing the body, linking the internal organs. Distributed along these channels were certain points which affected the way the steam flowed through the body. Thus energy (Qi) and the system of acupuncture points and channels were discovered, and people found that touching and massaging the points could heal a variety of problems. When you learn about Qigong you will come to understand the basics of Chinese medicine, which uses natural methods to treat and heal and to balance the internal organs through herbs, massage, moxibustion, acupuncture and Qigong. The first four types of healing skill mainly depend on others giving you treatment, but Qigong is a way of self-healing. All five, however, are based on the principles of Yin...

Chapter The Benefits of Qigong Practice

First, Qigong makes my body strong and healthy. I have more energy for everyday life, -because Qigong follows the natural way to strengthen the internal body. Based on Chinese medicine, Yin and Yang, the acupuncture points and channels, and concentrating on the breathing, mind and movement, Qigong brings the body back to normal, working with nature to follow the universal rhythm.

Kidney Yang Vacuity Shen Yang Xu

Lowing thorough diagnosis, treatment should include acupuncture and moxibustion, nutritional therapy, Chinese herbs, and movement therapy (qi gong, tai chi). Acupuncture treatments should be appropriately supplemented with nutritional therapy. Strengthening and warming foods for the kidneys, prepared using appropriate cooking methods, accelerate treatment success. In conjunction with supplementing kidney energy, nutritional therapy needs to also supplement and sustain the stomach and spleen. Serious disorders such as kidney yang vacuity or kidney yin vacuity might require Chinese herbal remedies. Depending on the seriousness of the condition, treatment may require weeks to months of consistent therapy. Profound disorders of the kidney network may even require treatment for a number of years. With correct diagnosis and therapy, good to very good results can be achieved. The prognosis is not so good for constitutional kidney qi vacuity, essence vacuity, or jing vacuity, perhaps caused...

Chen Hunyuan Tai Ji Quan

When we practise Taijiquan, the movements are continuous and flowing. Sometimes they are soft, Yin, and sometimes they are hard, Yang. This makes the body circulation strong and acupuncture channels smooth, thus practising Taijiquan is good for health. But there is a problem with a lot of the Taijiquan we see today. Nowadays, the

Complementary therapies

Patients with arthritis commonly use such treatments, possibly partly as a reflection of the perceived inadequacies of orthodox medical treatments for the condition, but also because it enables them to regain a greater level of control over their treatment choices. Commonly used therapies include homeopathy, manipulation, including chiropractic and osteopathy, acupuncture and herbal medicines some patients also use less 'medical' treatments such as aromatherapy or massage. Acupuncture has been shown to reduce pain in a variety of circumstances. There are no controlled trials of manipulative therapies such as chiropractic or osteopathy in rheumatoid arthritis however, patients considering such treatment should be warned of the potential for serious damage from neck manipulation since neck stability is reduced by RA. Previous studies of homeopathy in arthritis have been complicated by the difficulty in separating the effect of the treatment from the effect of the consultation further...

Gas Chromatographic Model

The American psychologist Ronald Mel-zack (1929- ) and the American-based English biologist and anatomist Patrick D. Wall (1925- ) formulated the gate-control theory of pain, which states that the spinal cord contains a type of neurological gate that either blocks or allows pain signals to pass on to higher centers in the brain. The spinal cord contains small nerve fibers ( C-fibers ) that conduct most pain signals and larger fibers ( A-delta fibers ) that transmit most other sensory information. When some bodily tissue is injured, the small fibers activate and open the neural gate, and the person feels pain. Larger fiber activity, on the other hand, serves to close the pain gate and turns pain off. Thus, according to the gate-control theory of pain, one way to treat chronic pain is to stimulate (via small electrical currents or by acupuncture) the gate-closing activity in the large neural fibers. This is called the counterirri-tant method for...

Brief History of Taoism and Healing Arts

These esoteric practices were an integral part of the development of Chinese medicine, where acupuncture, herbology and other aspects of what would now be called holistic medicine reached a state of high refinement unsurpassed by any other early civilization. But by the end of the fourteenth century in China, these arts were in decline for various political reasons, causing many of the teachers to be scattered from their schools and forced to go under ground.

The year of the Monkey arrives

Dayan Qigong

What then is qi (pronounced 'chee') Qi is the energy that flows inside the body. It maintains the internal organs, body temperature and protects and lubricates the blood vessels. The Qi flows along the 'meridians', or 'acupuncture channels'. These channels connect the acupuncture points found on the body. The Chinese character for qi can also be translated to mean 'air Thus the main element life is air If you breath in the fresh air in the proper manner you can maintain your qi to support your life. Qigong therapy is practised by a qigong master who transmit his qi. The qigong master uses his energy to strengthen the patients internal organs, open the acupuncture points and channels,eliminate negative qi, to ease the patients pain and bring him to balance. After treatment the patients qi should be strong enough to resist his illness. Many hospitals in China provide qigong treatment and it has cured many illnesses.even serious cases which have failed to respond to conventional methods....

The Ubiquitous Placebo

Rheumatoid arthritis, vasomotor function, vitamins, warts, and other ailments. Placebo medication has inhibited gastric acid secretion soothed bleeding ulcers and mimicked the effects of amphetamine, ipacac, and LSD, as well as most psychoactive drugs. It has reduced adrenocorticol activity and serum lipoproteins. It has been used in drug withdrawal studies as a substitute for morphine, Talwin injections, and Naloxone. Placebo side effects mimic medication side effects, and placebo effects have been documented in studies of psychotherapy, acupuncture, hypnosis, and behavioral treatments for insomnia and pain. Such surgical and dental procedures as Ligation of mammary arteries for angina pain, and bruxism have been shown to be as ineffective as placebo.

Alternative Health As Process

For almost half of the people who participated in this study, the concept of balance means balance within the bodily system. They said things such as, My enzymes do change and you can tell when things start to get out of balance again (Lucy) If something happens you can re-balance yourself because there's so many different systems in your body that you can balance it (Richard) and Having a balance in the body, it does make sense in a way to me (Greg). Under certain alternative ideologies of health, illness is said to arise when the flow of bodily energy is disharmonious or has been disrupted (Glik 1988 O'Connor 1995). Likewise, for some of these people, balance in the body also means the unblocked flow of energy throughout the body. These informants were most often those who were, or were in training to become, alternative practitioners. For example, in relating his understanding of how acupuncture achieves health, Simon told me this I was able to try some acupuncture and I have to...

Capsicum Capsicum spp

Physical medicines, the application of therapies to the body externally, are numerous and are excellent for identifying, treating, and resolving pain and its sources. While beyond the scope of this chapter, therapies such as traditional hydrotherapy, electronic therapies such as ultrasound and electric stimulation in all of its forms, myofascial trigger-point injections, acupuncture, and manual (osseous manipulation) medicine all provide excellent pain relief in and of themselves. Each of these modalities has a long history of use as well as an excellent record of safety and efficacy for pain treatment. Used in various combinations, the previously mentioned therapies are powerful tools for moving patients from states of helpless pain to health and pain-free vitality.

S Evidence statements

The remaining reviews looked at transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), phytodolor (a herbal preparation), acupuncture, ultrasound and low-level laser therapy (LLLT). TENS was reported to be better than inactive control but high frequency TENS (HFTENS) and low frequency TENS (LFTENS) were found to be similar.398 The effectiveness of phytodolor in treating osteoarthritis, chronic epicondylitis and rheumatic diseases was found to be superior to placebo and similar to synthetic drugs.399 There was limited evidence that acupuncture was more effective than no treatment in treating chronic pain, but the evidence was inconclusive as to whether it was more effective than placebo, sham acupuncture or standard care.400 Two reviews of ultrasound therapy and a review of LLLT for musculoskeletal pain reported no beneficial effects of treatment.401-403

GV4 general Yang tonic

In TCM the acupuncture point ST-36 is said to strengthen the immune system and boost the body's resistance to disease (Ross 1995). The Spleen's function of constantly transforming what is consumed into new Qi and Blood also plays a part in the body's defence system (Liang 2003). Recent studies from Korea and Taiwan have shown an impact on autoimmune diseases such as SLE and arthritis with electro-acupuncture and moxibustion on ST-36 and SP-6, by 'suppressing autoimmunity and modulating immune abnormality' (Kung et al 2006, Yun-Kyong et al 2007). Anna was 33. She had suffered three spontaneous abortions between 5 and 8 weeks of pregnancy in the past 2 years. Recently she decided to try IVF and had bloods taken to check her immune system, which showed raised NK cells. Anna was told by her specialist that she would require treatment with oral steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin for a successful outcome. Anna felt she would like to try a more natural approach for 4-6 months. She came...

Degenerative Disc Disease

The crucial initial step in management of patients with disc herniation syndrome is to identify those lesions that merit further evaluation and immediate therapy. In the remaining cases, the good prognosis for early recovery justifies a trial of conservative therapy before definitive imaging is done. Conservative therapy includes rest in a position of comfort followed by early remobilization, gentle exercises, and analgesics for pain as needed. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents probably provide little relief in most cases. For severe pain, judicious time- limited use of narcotics should be considered. Oral and epidural corticosteroids can be helpful. Many other modalities are available, but there are few reliable data about their effectiveness in populations medical and physical measures (e.g., ice, heat, massage, and ultrasound) that address secondary muscle spasm, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), acupuncture, exercise, and traction. '3 If...

Asian Herbal Medicine

Asian herbal medicine involves therapy using herbal preparations that are often complex mixtures of many different herbs. Asian herbal medicine frequently is used in combination with acupuncture, but it also may be used on its own. Asian herbal medicine may be administered in several different ways, including as tablets, pills, powders, capsules, or tinctures. Raw herbs or extracts of herbs also may be used.

Arthritis Bibliography

Ezzo. 2000. The evidence for acupuncture as a treatment for rheumato-logic conditions. Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America 26, no. 1 103-115. Kaptchuk, T. J. 2002. Acupuncture Theory, efficacy, and practice. Annals of Internal Medicine 136, no. 5 374-383.

Future research to improve management of pain in osteoarthritis

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The approach has been applied to chronic pain because, unlike in acute pain, the central nervous system (CNS) is involved through pain centralization. The resulting neural activity causes changes in capillary blood flow which can be visualized by fMRI. Positron emission tomography and fMRI studies using experimental pain models in arthritis and other conditions have demonstrated the existence of the CNS pain matrix - the changes in CNS activity which accompany chronic pain. fMRI has helped to define the neurobiology of acupuncture and has been used to assess fibromyal-gic pain, chronic back pain and response to NSAIDs in arthritis. Borsook & Becerra 28 believe fMRI may revolutionize the understanding of pain, help evaluate different pain states and develop new treatments. Although no research has yet been undertaken in osteo-arthritis, it is inevitable that fMRI will be a powerful instrument in assessing pain in these patients and for...

Alternative Therapies

Acupuncture (AP) is a form of traditional Chinese medicine, which uses fine needles to stimulate AP points that lie on specific lines or meridians. Once placed, a small electric current can be used to stimulate the points through the needle or the needle may be twitched or oscillated by hand.

Medical Benefits of Tai Chi Articles

Mental Homeostasis Psychological homeostasis refers to emotional control or tran-quility. It has been stated that the biological function of human emotion and repression is primarily homeostatic. Evidence suggests that a feedback relationship exists between forms of homeostasis, and the body-mind type of therapies (including acupuncture and T'ai Chi) thus have a combined physiological, Beyond Traditional Care Health practitioners encountering clients who are faced with problems that do not seem to respond to traditional health care may employ some of the health traditions of other cultures and to view the body and mind as a balanced whole. Massage, acupuncture and T'ai Chi focus on the

Pain From Toe To Head

The pain killing industry also brought us the addiction industry. As we turn to electrical pain killing the need for addicting drugs should decline. There are other very useful pain killers acupuncture, massage, listening to music, feedback devices, contemplation, hypnotism, and prayer.

Osteoarthritis of the Knee

More than 20 million Americans have osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. This clinical entity is one of the most frequent causes of physical disability among adults ( news pr dec2004 nccam-20.htm). A recent study conducted at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill suggested that nearly 50 of US adults and nearly two-thirds of obese adults will develop painful knee OA by age 85 ( September 2, 2008). According to the, OA of the knee is listed among the top 10 most expensive medical condition, costing 34 billion dollars. Berman et al. (1999) investigated the efficacy of acupuncture as an adjunctive therapy in elderly patients suffering from OA of the knee using a randomized crossover study design. These investigators found that patients randomized to acupuncture treatments had improvement on both McMaster University's OA index and Lequesne's indices at 4 and 8 weeks. The same research team then conducted a large-scale sham-controlled RCT that...

Clinical Evidence of Safety and Efficacy

Systematic reviews carried out under the Cochrane Collaboration are widely regarded as authoritative and highly respected evidence for treatment effects. Reviews have recently been conducted looking at several CAM modalities. A search of the Cochrane Library group for reviews on ( complementary medicine and chronic pain (search date 3 Dec 2007) found 78 published reviews. Reviews for conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, Crohn- s disease, venous or arterial insufficiency and complications, dysmenorrhea and for therapies described as behavioral interventions were excluded. Eleven reviews were selected, including three on low back pain, two on osteoarthritis, and two on headache (including migraine) herbal remedies were the focus of four reviews, two were on acupuncture and two were on massage. The results are summarized in Table 13.3. Low back pain Acupuncture and 2005 35 dry-needling Acupuncture 2001 26 acupuncture more effective for pain relief and functional improvement than...

Classification of CAM

Chiropractic, massage, acupuncture Acupuncture, massage, chiropractic Megavitamins, magnets, acupuncture Among patients with peripheral neuropathy, CAM users report using magnets and acupuncture (30 each), herbal remedies (22 ) and chiropractic (22 ) 14 . In this study, CAM use was associated with the presence of diabetic neuropathy and burning pain. Chiropractic and massage are frequently used by patients with chronic low back pain 15 . In a questionnaire study of 170 chronic pain patients attending a pain clinic in Montreal, 96 (56 ) had used a CAM modality in the past month, of which the most common were nutritional supplements (34 ), massage (11 ) and meditation (7 ) (Figure 13.1) 16 .

Tai chi

Each posture is said to send the ch'i to various parts of the body in order of importance. Each movement is said to activate the twelve main acupuncture meridians and thus give the whole body a healthy workout. T'ai chi is The way in which these postures work to heal the body is to cause the ch'i to travel along certain acupuncture meridians to perform certain work. This work is to do with the martial art of T'ai chi.

My Way to Qigong

Ping, massage, herbal medicine, acupuncture, injection, and painkillers. But nothing worked. I just lived with the pain and could hardly get around. I was born and grew-up in this culture, and I studied and practiced Tai Chi and Qigong, as well as herbal medicine and acupuncture. The Qigong technique I practiced was very helpful to me during very tumultuous and difficult times in my life. I had even used my skills with acupuncture, herbal medicine and simple Qigong to help others.

Understanding Qigong

If you look at an acupuncture chart of the energy channels in the body, you'll see that many channels start in the hands and then go to the head and the rest of the body. By raising your opposite arm you are creating an opposing pressure that forces the energy back into the proper channels. Try it. It works.

Major Chakras

Images Back Solar Plexus Chakra

Acupuncture points and chakras are gates through which prana can easily go in or come out. By energizing through the nearest chakra, the projected prana will have easy and direct access to the affected part. Whereas, when energizing directly the affected part instead of through a chakra or chakras, a filtering action on the projected prana takes place hence, energizing in this way takes more time and more prana.

Shou Gong

Zhanzhuang Pile Standing

Each of the exercises in the set has a specific purpose. Among these are exercises that gently stretch the body (improving flexibility), improve balance and posture, and stimulate the internal organs and acupuncture points. This helps enable Qi to flow unimpeded over time, helping to clear blockages and improve health. The exercises also release endorphins which leave one with a feeling of calm and well-being. acupuncture points 5, 7, 27, 50,55,57-66, 110 acupuncture points for 60, 63,65 cancer 114 failure 126-7 and meditation 111, 112, Qi (vital energy life force) 1, 2,5,21,73 and the acupuncture points


Swimming Dragon Qigong

Qigong is an ancient Chinese skill which is based upon the principles of Yin and Yang and the Five Elements. We know, that Yin and Yang is a balance of hard and soft, dark and light, movement and stillness. Therefore, if we are doing Qigong, this is Yang and active. Movement helps us to release the negative energy in our body and open the channels and acupuncture points so that Qi can flow smoothly and positive Qi can be gathered to replace the ill energy released. Once we have gathered this good energy, we need to take care of it. We would not leave a thousand pounds of money laying on a table for just anyone to take, so we should consider the Qi we have just worked hard to accumulate as something even more valuable. We need to keep it where it is safe and can be stored for later use and our bodies have conveniently provided just such a place. It is called our Dantian.

Energy Balancing

Acupressure manipulates the same points as acupuncture but uses the hands and fingers instead of needles. Shiatsu is a Japanese therapy and a form of acupressure. Qigong is practiced by millions in China. It is a system of gentle exercise and breathing techniques that restore the circulation of energy. The theory behind qigong is that the energy or life force that is inherent in all matter has two aspects, yin and yang. Illness, whether physical or emotional, develops when the energy flow between these two opposites moves out of balance or is depleted. Because of its ease and slowness, qigong can be practiced by all ages including the elderly, helping them maintain their strength and agility. Among the conditions that are benefited by the discipline are gastrointestinal ailments, ulcers, arthritis, high blood pressure, and heart disease.

The Nature Of Pain

The nature of pain is highly subjective. Pain has both sensory (somatic) and psychological (affective) components. One person may feel pain in response to noxious stimuli, while another person may disregard the stimuli. The affective (psychological) aspects of pain play a critical role in pain perception. A patient under external stress or other significant psychological problems often cannot handle the additional stress of pain. Anxiety exacerbates the perception of pain. Pain in turn exacerbates anxiety, decreases the comfort of the patient, and results in disturbances in sleeping, eating, and locomotion, creating a cycle of related medical problems. The drugs described in this chapter are used to interrupt such a cycle. The nonopioid analgesics act to decrease the generation of the mediators of pain at the site of tissue damage, although several of the drugs also have some effects within the central nervous system (CNS). The opi-oid analgesics are unique in that they not only block...


Effect of traditional Chinese acupuncture on severe tinnitus a double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical investigation with open therapeutic control. Br J Audiol 1998 32 197-204. 7. Chapman CR, Benedetti C, Colpitts YH, et al. Naloxone fails to reverse pain thresholds elevated by acupuncture acupuncture analgesia reconsidered. Pain 1983 16 13-31. 8. Lenhard L, Waite PM. Acupuncture in the prophylactic treatment of migraine headaches pilot study. N Z Med J 1983 96 663-666. 9. Christensen PA, Laursen LC, Taudorf E, et al. Acupuncture and bronchial asthma. Allergy 1984 39 379-385. 10. Marks NJ, Emery P, Onishiphorou C. A controlled trial of acupuncture in tinnitus. J Laryngol Otol 1984 98 1103-1109. 13. Tandon MK, Soh PF. Comparison of real and placebo acupuncture in histamine-induced asthma. A double-blind crossover study. Chest 1989 96 102-105. 14. Haker E, Lundeberg T. Laser treatment applied to acupuncture points in lateral humeral epicondylalgia....

Zone Therapy Riley

Transverse Zones Reflexology

Like Acupuncture or Acupressure, even Reflexology has its roots in antiquity. A form of treatment by means of pressure points was prevalent in India and China almost 5000 years ago. A similar form of therapy was practised in ancient Egypt too. A picture (reproduced below) found on the tomb of Ankhmahar (king's physician) at Saqquara in Egypt clearly shows 'Reflexology' being 'practised'. Studies have shown this tomb to be about 4500 years old. It can be presumed that Acupuncture and Reflexology originated from a common root. There are a number of things common to Acupuncture and Reflexology. Both recognize a flow, in the body, of energy (bio-electricity). In Reflexology, this flow is thought to take place through zones whereas in Acupuncture the flow is thought to occur through 'meridians'. In both these therapies, one aim of treatment is to render this flow of energy smooth and harmonious. this flow is thought to take place through zones whereas in Acupuncture the flow is thought to...

Specific Contents

In Chapter 10 , Alexander Clark reviews the evidence in support of the use of non-pharmacological treatments for chronic pain. Unfortunately, the quality of the research in this area is modest at best and most data are for short-term outcomes only. Treatment strategies with some empirical support include acupuncture for short-term relief of chronic low back and neck pain individual and group exercise therapy for a variety of chronic pain syndromes laser therapy for short-term relief of rheumatoid and osteoarthritis and chronic low back pain massage therapy for chronic low back pain relaxation therapy for chronic low back pain and Transcu-


Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) may be of benefit, especially when combined with acupuncture 58 . TENS is a form of electrotherapy and is thought to produce analgesia according to the gate control theory 59 . Conventional TENS (C-TENS) is given at high stimulation frequency with low intensity, whereas acupuncture-like TENS (AL-TENS) is given at low frequency and high intensity. A systematic review 58 included three RCTs, involving 78 people, in which C-TENS and AL-TENS were compared to placebo and each other. Administration of 15 minutes of AL-TENS a week, for 3 weeks, resulted in a significant decrease in rest pain (67 relative benefit, 45 points absolute benefit on 100 mm VAS), but not in grip pain, compared to placebo. AL-TENS did result in a clinical beneficial improvement in muscle power scores with a relative diference of 55 , and an absolute benefit of 0.98, compared to placebo. No significant difference was found...