Arthritis Research Council Achilles Tendon

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ABO blood group, as Achilles tendon injury risk factor, 43, 264, 265, 269 Achilles, 1, 2, 141 Achilles heel, 1

Achilles tendon. See also specific Achilles tendon disorders anatomy of, 5-16, 141 calcaneal insertion, 141 enthesis and enthesis organ, 12-14

gender differences in, 21, 143 gross anatomy, 6-11 midsubstance, 11 osteotendinous junction, 113, 121

relationship to biochemical function, 5, 7 blood supply to, 10 evolution of, 5 function of, 5, 6 history of, 1-4 innervation of, 10-11 insertion site of, 12

imaging of, 28 length of, 33 shape of, 6, 8 short, 236-237, 240 strength of, 11, 141, 159 thickness of, 8, 25 full, 32

imaging of, 29-30, 34, 35 in tendinopathy, 29-30, 32, 34 tight, 218 weakening of, 159 Achillodynia, definition of, 50

Adenovirus gene therapy, 269, 270

Adhesions, around the Achilles tendon, 52, 53, 54, 55-56, 84, 85, 197, 208, 209 Adolescents, Achilles tendon overuse syndrome in, 236 Allografts, use in Achilles tendon rupture repair, 171 American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS), Hindfoot Scoring System of, 111

Anabolic steroids, as Achilles tendon rupture risk factor, 263

Anastomoses, end-to-end, 167 Anisotropy, acoustic fiber, 27-28 Ankle ankylosis of, 3-4 anterior impingement of, 134 imaging of, 26 malalignment of, 44 palpation of, 134 role in gait, 241-242 spina bifida-related valgus deformity of, 247 Ankle equinus, 218-235 treatment of, 220-233 with Achilles tendon anterior advancement, 231, 233 with Achilles tendon lengthening, 222-226, 233

with gastrocnemius recession,

222-231 with stretching, 220-222

Anterior rectus sheath fasciocutaneous free flaps, 212-213 Antibiotics, as Achilles tendon rupture risk factor, 40, 41, 263-264 Antyllus, 3-4

Apophysitis, calcaneal. See Sever's disease Aprotinin, 63 Arm flaps, 213-214 Arthritis inflammatory, 25 juvenile chronic, 239 Athletes, Achilles tendon disorders in

Achilles tendinopathy, 43-44, 59

Achilles tendon ruptures, 42-43,

142, 252, 259 ankle equinus, 218-235 in older athletes, 42-43, 159, 252 prevalence of, 45 as "weekend warrior" syndrome, 159, 252 Augmented soft tissue mobilization (ASTM), 63 Autoimmune disorders, as Achilles tendon rupture risk factor, 41

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